In the midst of writing an essay, paper, or article, you may need to throw in a direct quote here and there; to add emphasis, authority, or clarity to your work. A quote can often accomplish things that a paraphrase or summary simply cannot . A clear and direct voice can easily drive a point home better than the best group of sentences you can come up with.
And along with this, in the process of sorting out your notes and research data, you may find that the quotes you'd like to include in your paper are not all from books and journal articles. Considering that your information can come from many sources, whether they be print, online, or audiovisual, its a good chance that you can have sources ranging from books and government documents to mp3s and Youtube videos. All of which need to be properly cited a formatted.
Formatting style and citation overview
A prerequisite to citing anything is a format and guideline to follow. And this usually comes about from the three basic styling guides, APA, MLA, and Chicago Manual of Style (the Turabian styling guide is also popular but closely resembles the Chicago manual in many respects; so often times the two are categorized together). A professor or publisher will generally request one of the three types of formatting styles, for both in-text and bibliographic listings.
These are the two main types of citations; one that appears in the text of a work and one that appears at the end. The in-text is how you indicate the source of your quote in the lines of the text of your paper and the work cited, bibliography or reference pages are where your source will show up at the end of your document. It may be helpful to become familiar with all the styling guides to make things easier for you in the long run, but typically you'll just need to know the details of the one being requested of you, when preparing your paper or essay for publication.
*This article will focus on audiovisual citations only.
In most cases, since the written word is often used in research (whether online or in print) the chances of you actually using audiovisual material for research may be minimal. So this type of citing is usually not as common as the rest; but nonetheless still needs to be addressed to avoid plagiarism in any fashion.
*The following list is categorized by medium and provides details of both in-text citations and also ones that appear in a list at the end of the document.
APA (American Psychological Association)
1. Audio Recording
Krasdale, S. (Speaker). (2010). The way money works (Cassette Recording No. 17). New York, NY: Education Plus Inc.
2. Film/Motion Picture
(Dunhoo & Titun, 1985)
Dunhoo, A. (Producer), & Titun, K. (Director). (1985). Inside the aerospace industry [Motion Picture]. United States: Lakeview Films
3. Radio broadcast
Lopez, P. (Narrator). (2013, March 1). The harms of secondhand smoke amongst children [Radio broadcast episode]. In E. McDonnell (Producer), Morning Edition. Washington, DC: National Public Radio.
MLA (Modern Language Association)
1. Audio Recording
Work cited listing:
Kent, Abdullah. The diseases of the heart. 1995. True Audio, 1999. Audiocassette.
2. Film/Motion Picture
(The Politics of Money)
Work cited listing:
The Politics of Money. Dir. Larry Smith. New Studios, 2000. Film.
3. Radio Broadcast
("Fun with marriage")
Work cited listing:
"Fun with marriage". Morning Digest. Philadelphia-Delaware Radio . WXKF, Philadelphia. 12 June 2002. Radio.
*MLA basic rule of thumb:* When providing in-text citations for MLA you may notice that the in-text citation matches the beginning of the work cited listing. This is the basic setup for MLA referencing. To make finding a source relatively easy, the in-text citation will simply mirror the beginning of the listing that is found at the end of the paper.
Chicago Manual of Style
1. Audio Recording
Randolph Klein, Understanding French, Knowledge Productions 1678-CD, 2012, Compact disc.
Klein, Understanding French.
Klein, Randolph. Understanding French. Knowledge Productions 11678-CD. 2012. Compact disc.
2. Film/Motion Picture:
The Life of the Ruler, DVD, directed by Tod Lewis (1982; New Orleans, LA: Castle Light Productions, 2000).
The Life of the Ruler.
The Life of the Ruler. DVD. Directed by Tod Lewis. 1982; New Orleans, LA: Castle Light Productions, 2000.
3. Radio Broadcast:
"Cleaning up after the tsunami," Morning Digest, WXKF Philadelphia-Delaware Radio (Philadelphia, PA: WPKT, January 10, 2005).
"Cleaning up after the tsunami"
"Cleaning up after the tsunami." Morning Digest. WXKF Philadelphia-Delaware Radio . Philadelphia, PA: WPKT, January 10, 2005.
Citing using any manual of style can be a tedious process. When obtaining a movie or film quote save some time by not watching anything at all. Many, many video recording, films, and motion pictures have transcripts available for them (as well as audio recordings). This is a tremendous help when providing direct quotations. Instead of struggling to decipher and record an exact statement, a keyword search in the work's transcript can just as easily provide the same results.
Please note that for some citation guidelines (such as MLA film/video recording citations) there is no a one-size-fits-all method of citing. There are actually a few different methods citing based on what you would like to emphasize in your referencing (for example, maybe you'd like to emphasize the director or the people involved, then your citation would be changed because of that).
Also your citation may be altered based on whether or not you provide a signal phrase or include the full reference in the text of your paper as oppose to using parenthetical citations. The default method for all the in-text citations above are parenthetical, with no signal phrases. And finally there is no in-text citation format for the Chicago manual of style because footnotes and endnotes are utilized with this guide instead.
Annotated Bibliography Samples
This handout provides information about annotated bibliographies in MLA, APA, and CMS.
Contributors: Geoff Stacks, Erin Karper, Dana Bisignani, Allen Brizee
Last Edited: 2018-02-20 13:19:26
For a sample of an entry from an annotated bibliography entry in PDF, click on the downloadable file in the media box above.
Below you will find sample annotations from annotated bibliographies, each with a different research project. Remember that the annotations you include in your own bibliography should reflect your research project and/or the guidelines of your assignment.
As mentioned elsewhere in this resource, depending on the purpose of your bibliography, some annotations may summarize, some may assess or evaluate a source, and some may reflect on the source’s possible uses for the project at hand. Some annotations may address all three of these steps. Consider the purpose of your annotated bibliography and/or your instructor’s directions when deciding how much information to include in your annotations.
Please keep in mind that all your text, including the write-up beneath the citation, must be indented so that the author's last name is the only text that is flush left.
Sample MLA Annotation
Lamott, Anne. Bird by Bird: Some Instructions on Writing and Life. Anchor Books, 1995.
Lamott's book offers honest advice on the nature of a writing life, complete with its insecuritiesand failures. Taking a humorous approach to the realities of being a writer, the chapters inLamott's book are wry and anecdotal and offer advice on everything from plot development to jealousy, from perfectionism to struggling with one's own internal critic.
In the process, Lamottincludes writing exercises designed to be both productive and fun. Lamott offers sane advice for those struggling with the anxieties of writing, but her main project seems to be offering the reader a reality check regarding writing, publishing, and struggling with one's own imperfect humanity in the process. Rather than a practical handbook to producing and/or publishing, this text is indispensable because of its honest perspective, its down-to-earth humor, and its encouraging approach.
Chapters in this text could easily be included in the curriculum for a writing class. Several of the chapters in Part 1 address the writing process and would serve to generate discussion on students' own drafting and revising processes. Some of the writing exercises would also be appropriate for generating classroom writing exercises. Students should find Lamott's style both engaging and enjoyable.
In the sample annotation above, the writer includes three paragraphs: a summary, an evaluation of the text, and a reflection on its applicability to his/her own research, respectively.
For information on formatting MLA citations, see our MLA 2016 Formatting and Style Guide.
Sample APA Annotation
Ehrenreich, B. (2001). Nickel and dimed: On (not) getting by in America. New York: Henry Holt and Company.
In this book of nonfiction based on the journalist's experiential research, Ehrenreich attempts to ascertain whether it is currently possible for an individual to live on a minimum-wage in America. Taking jobs as a waitress, a maid in a cleaning service, and a Walmart sales employee, the author summarizes and reflects on her work, her relationships with fellow workers, and her financial struggles in each situation.
An experienced journalist, Ehrenreich is aware of the limitations of her experiment and the ethical implications of her experiential research tactics and reflects on these issues in the text. The author is forthcoming about her methods and supplements her experiences with scholarly research on her places of employment, the economy, and the rising cost of living in America. Ehrenreich’s project is timely, descriptive, and well-researched.
The annotation above both summarizes and assesses the book in the citation. The first paragraph provides a brief summary of the author's project in the book, covering the main points of the work. The second paragraph points out the project’s strengths and evaluates its methods and presentation. This particular annotation does not reflect on the source’s potential importance or usefulness for this person’s own research.
For information on formatting APA citations, see our APA Formatting and Style Guide.
Sample Chicago Manual of Style Annotation
Davidson, Hilda Ellis. Roles of the Northern Goddess. London: Routledge, 1998.
Davidson's book provides a thorough examination of the major roles filled by the numerous pagan goddesses of Northern Europe in everyday life, including their roles in hunting, agriculture, domestic arts like weaving, the household, and death. The author discusses relevant archaeological evidence, patterns of symbol and ritual, and previous research. The book includes a number of black and white photographs of relevant artifacts.
This annotation includes only one paragraph, a summary of the book. It provides a concise description of the project and the book's project and its major features.
For information on formatting Chicago Style citations, see our Chicago Manual of Style resources.