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Scheme and Syllabus of M.Sc.Botany (1st Semester) of affiliated colleges under Credit ... Minutes of the meeting of the Board of Studies in Botany (PG) of.

UNIVERSITY OF CALICUT (Abstract) Scheme and Syllabus of M.Sc.Botany (1st Semester) of affiliated colleges under Credit Semester System (CUCSS-PG-2010) implemented with effect from 2010 admissionorders issued. GENERAL & ACADEMIC BRANCH-IV ‘J’ SECTION No. GA IV/J1/4765/2006 Dated, Calicut University PO, 30.07.2010. Read: 1. U.O.No.GAIV/J1/1373/08 dated 23.07.2010. 2. Minutes of the meeting of the Board of Studies in Botany (PG) of 19.06.2010. 3. Orders of the Vice-Chancellor, in the file of even number dated 29.07.2010. O RDER As per paper read as (1) above, Credit Semester System at Post Graduate level in affiliated colleges (CUCSS-PG-2010) has been implemented from the Academic year 2010 onwards. The Board of Studies at its meeting, vide paper read as (2) above, discussed the scheme and syllabus of Botany (PG) of affiliated colleges and has forwarded the scheme and syllabus of 1st Semester to the University. The Vice-Chancellor, in view of exigency, has approved the minutes of the meeting of the Board, subject to ratification by the Academic Council vide paper read as 3 above. Sanction has therefore been accorded to implement the scheme and syllabus of M.Sc.Botany (1st Semester) of affiliated colleges under Credit Semester System with effect from 2010 admission. Orders are issued accordingly. Scheme and Syllabus appended. Sd/DEPUTY REGISTRAR(G&A IV) For REGISTRAR To 1. The Principals of affiliated Colleges. Colleges offering M.Sc.Botany. 2. Self financing centers of the University of Calicut offering Botany (PG) Copy to: PS to VC/PA to Registrar/CE/Digital wing (with a request to upload in the University website)/Enquiry/Information centers/DR III Exams/EG I/DR PG/Tabulation Section/GA I ‘F’ ‘G’ sections/GAII/GAIII / DDLFA/SF/FC Forwarded/By Order Sd/SECTION OFFICER.

UNIVERSITY OF CALICUT M.Sc. BOTANY PROGRAMME (CSS) Admission: The norms of admission as per the existing university regulations will be followed. Duration of the Course: Four semesters (2 years) Number of courses and credits required: Ist, IInd and IIIrd semesters with four core courses (three theory and one practical), each with 4 credits (total 16 credits per semester) and IV semester with four elective courses (two theory and two practical) each with 4 credits, one dissertation with 4 credits and one viva voce with 4 credits (total 24 credits in the semester). Total credits required for the completion of the programme is 16x3+1x24=72. Selection of subject for dissertation: A subject is to be selected by each student for dissertation based on the facilities available and the specializations of the supervising teachers. Evaluation: Evaluation is to be carried out both by internal continuous evaluation and external terminal evaluation. Out of the total weightage for each course, 25% is to be given for internal continuous evaluation and 75% for external terminal evaluation. 1. Internal continuous evaluation: Internal continuous evaluation should have five components of equal weightage as shown below. Internal evaluation will be carried out by the teacher/ teachers offering the course. The marks should be displayed on the notice board of the department and the students shall be given a chance to redress grievances if any. a. Theory courses: Attendance Assignments Test paper (1) Seminar Test paper (2) 90%: full weightage A: full weightage A: Full weightage A: full weightage A: full weightage 80%: ¾ weightage B: ¾ weightage B: ¾ weightage B: ¾ weightage B: ¾ weightage 75%: ½ weightage C: ½ weightage C: ½ weightage C: ½ weightage C: ½ weightage Below 75%: no D: no weightage D: no weightage D: no weightage D: no weightage weightage b. Practical courses: Attendance Practical skill Test paper (1) Drawing skill and Test paper (2) regularity 90%: full weightage A: full weightage A: full weightage A: full weightage A: full weightage 80%: ¾ weightage B: ¾ weightage B: ¾ weightage B: ¾ weightage B: ¾ weightage 75%: ½ weightage C: ½ weightage C: ½ weightage C: ½ weightage C: ½ weightage Below 75%: no D: no weightage D: no weightage D: no weightage D: no weightage weightage c. Dissertation: Regularity Involvement/ level of Literature Presentation (1) Presentation (2) knowledge collection (model) 90%: full A: full weightage A: full weightage A: A: weightage full weightage full weightage 80%: ¾ B: ¾ credits B: ¾ weightage B: B: weightage ¾ weightage ¾ weightage 75%: ½ C: ½ credits C: ½ weightage C: ½ weightage C: ½ weightage weightage Below 75%: no D: D: D: D: weightage no credits no weightage no weightage no weightage 2. External terminal evaluation: At the end of each semester, there will be external evaluation for each course. The pattern of theory question paper will be as per the general regulations of CSS. The pattern of practical question papers will be finalized by the concerned board of examiners. The answer scripts of each theory course will be valued by one member of the board of examiners constituted by the university for the purpose. There will be

provision for revaluation after the declaration of results. The practical examination will be conducted by two members each of the board of examiners constituted by the university. Each dissertation will be valued by two examiners. Maximum number of dissertations to be valued by a set of examiners on a particular day will be 5. The examiners will value the dissertations in the FN of the day. The candidates will be presenting the salient features of their work and dissertation by way of power point presentation in the AN. The teachers and students of the department may form the audience but they will be simple listeners. However, academic deliberations may be permitted based on the decision of the board of examiners. The board of viva voce will also constitute of two examiners appointed by the university. One improvement chance will be given to the candidate in the case of each course. There will be no limit for supplementary chances. The candidates will have to appear for the improvement and supplementary chances along with the junior batches. Theory examinations will be of 3 hours duration and practical examination of 6 hours duration with a break in between. The practical question paper is to be set with two sections, one for the FN and the other for the AN. The students will have to submit their tour reports and practical records on the day of the practical examination. Pass and overall grade: Pass and overall grade will be as per the general regulation of CSS. Grievance redressal: Grievance redressal should be carried out as per the general guidelines issued by the university from time to time. Distribution of weightage of marks: 1. Theory: Essay questions: 40%; Paragraph questions: 30%; Short answer questions: 30%. 2. Practicals: Practical work: 75%; Practical records: 15%; Submissions and tour report: 10%. 3. Dissertation: Written account: 80%; Presentation: 10%; Discussion: 10%. 4. Viva voce: Viva voce at the end of the IVth semester based on the entire syllabus with 100% external evaluation. Distribution of work based on credits: 1 credit = 1.5 hours of teaching per week. (I Semester to III Semester: 16 credits = 24 teaching hours per week. 1 hour per week for seminar; IV Semester: 16 credits for elective courses = 24 teaching hours. 1 hour for CE of Dissertation.)

Course Semester I BO01CT01 BO01CT02

UNIVERSITY OF CALICUT M.Sc. Programme in Botany (CSS) Programme, structure of courses and distribution of credits Title Credits Internal Phycology, Bryology, Pteridology and Gymnosperms Mycology and Lichenology, Microbiology and Plant Pathology

25% 25%


Total credits

75% 75%

4 4

BO01CT03 BO01CP04

Semester II BO02CT05 BO02CT06 BO02CT07 BO02CP08

Semester III BO03CT09 BO03CT10 BO03CT11 BO03CP12 Semester IV BO04ET13 BO04ET14 BO04EP15 BO04EP16 BO04DN17 BO04VV18

Angiosperm Anatomy, Embryology, Palynology and Lab Techniques Practicals of Phycology, Bryology, Pteridology, Gymnosperms, Mycology and Lichenology, Microbiology, Plant Pathology, Angiosperm anatomy, Embryology, Palynology and Lab Techniques.







Cell Biology, Molecular Biology and Biophysics Cytogenetics, Genetics, Biostatistics, Plant Breeding and Evolution Plant Ecology, Conservation Biology, Phytogeography and Forest Botany Practicals of Cell Biology, Molecular Biology, Biophysics, Cytogenetics, Genetics, Biostatistics, Plant Breeding, Plant Ecology, Conservation Biology, Phytogeography and Forest Botany

25% 25%

75% 75%

4 4







Plant Physiology, Metabolism and Biochemistry Angiosperm Morphology and Taxonomy and Plant Resources Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Practicals of Plant Physiology, Metabolism, Biochemistry, Angiosperm Morphology, Taxonomy, Plant Resources, Biotechnology and Bioinformatics

25% 25%

75% 75%

4 4

25% 25%

75% 75%

4 4

Elective I Elective II Practicals of Elective I Practicals of Elective II Dissertation Viva voce

25% 25% 25% 25% 25% 0%

75% 75% 75% 75% 75% 100% Total

4 4 4 4 4 4

CT01. PHYCOLOGY, BRYOLOGY, PTERIDOLOGY AND GYMNOSPERMS (1.5+1+2+1.5 = 6 hours per week) Phycology 1. Classification of Algae-comparative Survey of important systems - Fritsch-Smith-Round. Criteria for algal classification-Phylogenetic considerations. 2. Biological importance of Planktons. 3. Algal cytology-Basic ideas of cell features-Electron microscopic studies of algal cell, cell wall, flagella, chloroplast, pyrenoid, e\ye-spot- their importance in classification. 4. Reproduction-Different types of life cycles in algae. 5. General account of energy sources and pigments in algae. 6. Economic importance of algae-Roll of algae in soil fertility, algae in industry-Biological importance of phytoplanktons and water blooms. 7. General account of thallus structure, cell ultra-structure, reproduction, relationships and evolutionary trends in the following'groups: Chlorophyta, Xanthophyta, Bacillariophyta, Phaeophyta, Rhodophyta.

72 credits

References : 1. Fritsch, F.E. 1945. The structure and Reproduction of Algae. 2. Smith, G.M. 1950. Manual of Phycology 3. Round, F.E, 1965. The Biology of Algae. 4. Pold and Wyane. 1978. Introduction of Algae. Bryology 1. General characters and systems of classifications of Bryophytes 2. General account of the anatomy, reproduction, life history and phylogeny of Sphaerocarpales, Marchantiales, Jungermanniales, Calobryales, Anthocerotales, Sphagnales, Andreales, Funariales and Polytrichales 3. Origin and evolution of Bryophytes- gametophytic and sporophytic. 4. A general account of fossil Bryophytes and their affinities. 5. Economic importance of Bryophytes. References l. Watson E.V. The structure and life of Bryophytes. Hutchinson Univ. Press, London. 2. Cavers F. The interrelationship of Bryophytes. New Phytologist. 3. Kashyap S.R., The Liverworts of Western Himalaya and the Punjab Plains, Vol.l&II. Chronica Botanica 4. Smith G.M. Cryptogamic Botany. McGraw Hill Book Co., N.Y. 5. Parihar N.S. An introduction of Embryophyta: Bryophyta. General Book House, Allahabad. 6. Verdoon, F.M. Mannual of Bryology. Ashor & Co., Amsterdam. 7. Shaw, J. and Goffinet, B. 2000. Bryophyte Biology. Cambridge University Press. 8. Manju C. Nair, K.P. Rajesh and Madhusoodanan P.V., 2005. Bryophytes of Wayanad in Western Ghats. Malabar Natural History Society, Kozhikode. Pteridology 1. General characters and life history of Pteridophytes. 2. Cytology of Pteridophytes- Chromosome number and polyploidy. 3. Structure and evolution of stele in Pteridophytes. 4. Origin and evolution of Sporangium. 5. Heterospory and seed habit. 6. Development and evolutionary trends in the Gametophytes of Pteridophytes. 7. Apogamy, Apospory and Parthenogenesis. 8. Classification of Pteridophytes: Holttum, Pichi-Sermolli. 9. Comparative morphology, ecology and phylogeny of the following: a) Psilopsida : Rhyniales, Psilophytales and Psilotales b) Lycopsida: Lycopodiales and lsoetales c) Sphenopsida: Hyeniales, Pseudobomiales, Sphenophyllales, Calamitales and Equisetales. d) Filicopsida: General account: Primofilicales, Ophioglossales, Marattiales, Osmundales, Schizaeales, Cyatheales, Gleicheniales, Marsileales and Salviniales. 10. Economic importance of Pteridophytes-Medícinal, Horticulture, Biofertilizer, weeds. 11. General account of the contribution of Indian pteridologists. . Refercnces 1. Bierhost, D.W. 1971 . Morphology of Vascular Plants. Mac Miilan Co., New York. 2. Dyer, A.C. 1979. The Experimenial Biology of Ferns. Academic Press, London. 3. Jermy, A.C.1973 (Ed.): The phylogeny and Classification of Ferns. 4. Kramer, K.U. and Green, P.S. 1991. The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. Narosa, New Delhi. 5. Nampy, S. and Madhusoodanan, P.V.1998. Fern Flora of South India-Taxonomic Revision of Polypodioid Ferns. Daya Publishing House, New Delhi. 6. Aböul Hameed C., Rajesh K.P. and Madhusoodanan P.V. 2003. Filmy Ferns of South India. Penta Book Publishers & Distributors, Calicut. 7. Azeez K., Venugopalakrishna Kurup V. and P.V. Madhusoodanan, 2008. Spleenworts (Aspleniaceae) of South lndia. Malabar Natural History Society, Calicut. 8. Venugopalakrishna Kurup V., Azeez K. and P.V. Madhusoodanan, 2008. Primitive Ferns of South India. 'V'Publishers, Kottayam.

Gymnosperms 1. Geological time scale and correlated predominant Gymnosperm flora. Classification of Gymnosperms- Chamberlain's system. 2. Geological horizons. Distribution, morphology, anatomy, reproduction and interrelationship of the following orders (Study of families and types not required) a. Pteridospermales; b. Glossopteridales; c. Caytoniales; d. Cycadaeoidales; e. Pentoxylales; f . Cycadales, g. Ginkgoales; h. Cordaitales; i. Coniferales; j. Taxales; k. Ephedrales; l. Welwitschiales; m. Gnetales 3. Phylogenetic relationship of Gymnosperms. 4. Economic importance of Gymnosperms References 1. Andrews, H.N. 1961. Studies in Paleobotany, Wiley, N.Y. 2. Banks, H.P. 1970. Evolution and plants of the past. Wadsworth. 3. Bierhost, D.W. 1971. Morphology of Vascular Plants. Macmíllan. 4. Bower, F.O. 1935. Primitive Plants. Macmillan. 5. Chamberlain, C.J. 1935. Gymnosperms- Structure and Evölution. Univ. of Chicago Press. 6. Foster, A.S. & E.M. Gifford. 1974. Comparative morphology of vascular plants. Freeman. 7. Maheshwari, P & V. Vasil. Gnetum. CSIR, New Delhi. 8. Ramanujam, C.G.K. 197b. Indian Gymnosperms in time and space. Today & Tomorrow, Dehra Dun. 9. Sewart, W.N. 1983. Paleobotany and the Evolution of Plants. Cambridge Univ. Press. 10. Stockey, R.S. 1981. Some comments on the origin and evolution of conifers. Canadian J. Bot. 59: 75-82. 11. Taylor, T.N. 1982. Reproductive biology in early seed plants. Bioscience 32:23-28. 12. Walton, 1951. An Introduction to the Study of Fossil plants. CT02: MYCOLOGY & LICHENOLOGY, MICROBIOLOGY AND PLANT PATHOLOGY (2.5+2.5+1= 6 hours per week) Mycology 1. General characters of Fungi: cell-ultra structure, unicellular and multicellular organization, hyphal growth, cell wall composition, nutrition (saprobic, biotrophic, symbiotic, predacious) reproduction (vegetative, asexual, sexual), heterothallism, parasexuality. 2. Classification of fungi by Ainsworth & Bisby (1983), Alexopoulos et al. (1996)- Phylogeny of fungiCharacters used in classification. 3. General account of Myxomycota, Mastigomycota, Zygomycota, Ascomycota, Basidiomycota and mitosporicfungi. Different kinds of spores and their dispersal. 4. Fungi as saprophytes: details of the fungal decomposition of organic matter, coprophilous fungi, lignin degrading fungi, role of fungi in degradation of pesticides. 5. Fungi as symbionts: Mycorrhiza – ectotrophic, orchidaceous and Ericoid mycorrhiza, Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhiza - their distribution and significance. Endophytes. 6. Lichenology: General account and systematics of lichens, thallus structure, reproductive bodies, ecological significance and economic importance of lichens. References: Alerxopoulos C.J., Mims, C.W. & Blackwell, M. (1996). lntroductory Mycology. 4th edition. John Wiley & Sons lnc. Ainsworth, G.C., Sparrow, K.F.& Susmann, A.S.(Eds.) (1973).The Fungi - An Advanced Treatise. Vol 1-4. Academic Press. Burnett, J.H. (1970). Fundamentals of Mycology. Edward Amolds. Cariile, M. J. & Watkinson S.C. (1994). The Fungi. Academic Press. Deacon, J.W. (1988). Introduction to Modem Mycology. Blackwell. Dubey, H.C. (1990). An lntroduction to Fungi. 2nd Edition. Vikas Publishers, New Delhi. Hale Mason, E. (1983). The Biology of Lichens. 3rd Ed. Edward Arnold, London. Jennigs, D.H. & Lysek, G. (1999). Fungal |Biology. Bios Scientifìc Publishers. Mehrotra, R.S. & Aneja, K.R. (1990). An lntroductión to Mycology. New Age International Publishers. Landecker, Elizabeth Moore. (1996). Fundamentals of Fungi. 4th Ed. Prentice Hall. Nair, M.C. & Balakrishnan, S. (1986). Beneficial fungi and their utilization. Scientific Publishers, Jodhpur. Nash, T.H. (1996). Lichen Biology. Cambridge University Press. Webster, John (1980). lntroduction to Fungi. cambridge University Press.

Microbiology 1. Introduction - main groups of microorganisms and their characteristics -prions, viroids, viruses, bacteria, mycoplasmas and actinomycetes. 2. Bacteria - classification based on Bergey's Manuel. Archaeoacteria and Eubacteria. Morphology, ultrastructure,. nutrition, genetics 3. Plasmids and their characterization. 4. Cyanobacteria- salient features, morphology, ultrastructure, classification and economic importance 5. Viruses- General account of plant and animal viruses, bacteriophages and their classification. lsolation, purificatíon, infection, replication and transmisiion of plant virüses. Detailed study of TMV and T4Phage. 6. Microbial ecology- microbiology of rhizosphere and phylloplane. Sewage disposal, bioremediation and.water purification. Detection of microbes in air and water. 7. Agricultural microbiology - management of agricultural soils, biofertilizers, biopesticides. 8. Food Microbiology -.Food spoilage and preservation methods. Microbiology of fermented food - dairy products, bread and other fermented plant products. Microorganisms as source of food- single cell protein. 9. Industrial Microbiology - Production of alcohol, vinegar, antibiotics, vitamins, steroids, vaccines, organic acids, amino acids. References: Adams, M R & Moss, M.O. (1996). Food Microbiology. New Age International Publishing Ltd., New Delhi. Brock, T. D. (1996). Biology of Microorganisms. Prentice Hall. Campbell, R. (1987). Microbiology. ELBS-Edward Arnold, London. Carpemter, P.L. (1967). Microbiology. W.B. Sunders &Company, Philadelphia. Dubey, R.C. & Maheswari, D.K.(2000) A text book of Microbiology. S. Chand. Desikachary. Cyanophyta- Monograph Goodfellow, M. et.al. (1993). The Biology of Actinomyçetes. Academic press. Kumar, H.D. & Swati Kumar (1998). Modern Concepts of Microbiology. Mathew, R.E.F. (1981). Plant Virology, Academic press. Pelozar, M.J., Chan, E.C.S. & Krieg, N.R. (1986). Microbiology. Tata Mc Graw Hill. Sharma, P.D. (1999). Microbiology & Plant Pathology. Rastogi Publishers, Meerut. Plant Pathology 1. Principles of Plant Pathology- Causal agents of plant diseases - Biotic causes (fungi, bacteria, virus, mycoplasma, nematodes, angiospermic parasites. Abiotic causes (nutrient and mineral deficiencies, effect of pollution). Koch’s postulates. Latrogenic diseases. Seed pathology. 2. Details of different symptoms of plant diseases. 3. Process of infection- mechanical, physiological and enzymatic action. Penetration and entry of pathogens in to host tissue. 4. Host- parasite interaction. Enzymes and toxins in pathogenesis. Defense mechanisms in plants (structural and biochemical). 5. Details of different ways of spread and transmission of plant diseases- wind and water-mediated, seed borne and vector borne. 6. Plant disease management- exclusion, eradication and protection. Different pesticides and fungicides and their application. Biocides in plant protection. 7. Study of the following diseses with reference to the symptoms, causal organisms, disease cycle and control measures: Bunchy top of banana, Bacterial blight of paddy, Bud rot of coconut, Mahali of Arecanut, Powdery mildew of rubber, Abnormal leaf fall of rubber, tikka disease of Ground nut, Late blight of potato, Blister blight of tea, wheat rust, coffee rust, grey leaf spot of coconut, Phytophthora foot rot of pepper, rhizome rot of ginger and turmeric, angiospermic parasites-Viscum, Dendropthoe. References Agrios, G.N. (1997). Plant pathology. 4th Ed., Academic Press. Bilgrami, K.H. & Dube, H C. A Text Book of Modem Plant Pathology. Vikas Publishers, New Delhi. Chaube, H.S. & Ramji Singh (2001). |ntroductory Plant Pathology. lnternational Book Distributing Co., Lucknow. Gareth-Jones, D. (1983). Plant Pathology: Principles and Practice. Open University Press. Horsfall J.G. & Cowling E. B. (Ed.) (1978). Plant Disease:An Advanced Treatise. Academic Press. Lucas, J. A.. (l998). Plant Pathology and Plant pathogens. Blackwell. Manners, J.G. (1993) Principles of Plant Pathology. Cambridge Univ Press. Mehrotra, R.S. (1980). Plant Pathology. Tata Mc Graw Hill.

Pandey, B. P. (1999). Plant Pathology -pathogen and plant disease. S. Chand & Co. Pathak, V.N., Khatri, N.K. & Pathak, M. (2000). Fundamentals of Plant Pathology. Agro-bios India. Rangaswami, G. (1999). Diseases of Crop Plants of lndia. Prentice Hall lndia. Tarr, S.A. J. (1972). The Principles of Plant Patholgy. Winchester Press. Wheeler, H. (1975). Plant Pathogenesis. Springer Verlag. Wood, R.K.S. (1978). Physiological Plant Pathology. Blackwell CT03. ANGIOSPERM ANATOMY, ANGIOSPERM EMBRYOLOGY, PALYNOLOGY & LAB TECHNIQUES (2+2+1+1= 6 hours per week) Angiosperm Anatomy 1. Cell wall and its development. Chemistry of cell wall- cellulose, hemicellulose, polysaccharides, cell wall proteins, water. Organisation of primary wall. Cytokinesis and growth. Plasmodesmata. Secondary wall chemical Constituents- lignin, suberin, callose; organisation of secondary wall. 2. Node - nodal pattems: Unilacunar, trilacunar, multilacunar and split lateral. .Phylogenetic considerations. Leaf trace and branch trace- origin, departure; effect on stele and pith. Secondary growth in leaf traces. 3. Cambium: Development of vascular cambium.and.cork cambium in root and stem; cell types in vascular cambium, infected vascular cambia, seasonal variations in cambial activity; role of cambium in wound healing and grafting. Conversion of fusiform initials in to ray initials; cambium in arborescent monocotyledons (Liliflorae). 4. Development and differentiation: The structure of specialized cells. Vascular differentiation (procambium, residual meristem, interfascicular and intrafascicular cambia); acropetal and basipetal differentiation in leaves, stem and roots. Sieve tube differentiation. Controle of phloem differentiation. Tracheary elements differentiation. Ultra structure of phloem and xylem, brief account of transfer cells. Secondary wall thickening, cytoplasmic changes and autolysis. Control of differentiation. Genetic aspects- lnduction of vessel elements. lnduction of secondary xylem structure in relation to function in water conduction. 5. Anomalous secondary growth: Concepts; modification of the common type of vascular cambium, unequal activity of the vascular cambium. Successive cambia. Anomalous placement of vascular cambium. Discontinuous, unidirectional and bidirectional activity of cambium. Anomalous secondary growth in storage roots (Beet root, sweet potato). 6. Seedling anatomy: Concepts: anatomy of cotyledons, hypocotyl, seedling root, mesocotyl differentiation 7. Leaf anatomy: Unifacial, bifacial and centric leaf (onion); structure of epidermis, stomatal types; foriar sclerieds; oil cells; crystal idioblasts. 8. Anatomy in relation to taxonomy. 9. Wood anatomy- general account. References 1. Easu, K- 1983. Plant Anatomy - Wiley Eastern Limited. 2. Fahn, A. 1977 – Plant Anatomy. Pergamon Press. 3. Cutter, E.G. & Edward, E., 1978. Plant Anatomy : Experiment and Interpretations Part I and II. 4. Mauseth, J.D. 1988. Plant Anatomy - The Nenjamin Cumming Publishing Co. 5. Forester,A.S. l960. Practical Plant Anatomy. D. Van Nostrand Company lnc. 6. Roberts, L.W. 1976. Cytodifferentiation in Plants - Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Angiosperm Embryology 1. Introduction to angiosperm embryology - structure of dithecous and monothecous anther. 2. Microsporogenesis: Structure and function of wall layers, role of tapetum in pollen development 3. Male gametophyte: Pollen mitosis, division of generative cells, heterospory. 4. Megasporogenesis: Megaspore triad, dyad, coenomegaspore. 5. Embryo sac - different types- ultra-structure of components- synergid and antipodal. embryo sac theories of the morphological nature of embryo sac 6. Pollination -Artifìcial pollination - ultra-structural and dis-ultrastructural and histo-chemical sigma. significance of pollen - pistil interaction. Role of pollen wall proteins and stigma.

In vitro pollination and fertilization. 7. Fertilization: Role of synergids - filiform apparatus, heterospermy and triple fusion. 8. Structure and development of typical dicot and monocot embryos- structure and function of suspensor. 9. Endosperm: classification and type- ruminate endosperm- mosaic endosperm- endosperm haustoria physiology and cytology of endosperm. 10. Polyembryony - classification – practical value. 11. Apomixis - general account, genetics of apomixis. 12. Parthenocarpy -seedless fruits 13. Experimental embryology-embryo culture, anther culture, ovule culture. 14. Embryology in relation to taxonomy. References: Bouman F., 1978. Ovule initiation, ovule development and seed coat astructure in angiosperms. Today and Tomarrow Publishers, New Delhi. Bhojwani S.S. and Bhatnagar S.S., 1974. The embryology of Angiosperms. Vikas Publication, New Delhi. Davis C.L., 1965. Systematic embryology of Angiosperms. John Wiley. Eames A.J., 1960. Morphology of Angiosperms. Mc Graw Hill. Johanson D., 1950. Plant Embryology. Waltham, Massachusetts. John B.D. (Ed.), 1984. Embryology of Angiosperms. Springer Verlag. Maheswari P., 1950. An introduction to the Embryology of Angiosperms. Mc Graw Hill. Raghavan V., 1976. Experimental embryogenesis in plants. Academic Press. Wardlaw C.W., 1976. Embryogenesis in Plants. Methusen, London. Palynology 1. Introduction- contributions of Erdtman and P K K Nair. 2. Development and structure of pollen wall. Pollen morphology and its application. Pollen evolution 3. Aero-palynology- methods of aerospore survey and analysis 4. Melittopalynology- nutritional and medical value of honey- unifloraland multifloral honey. 5. Recent advances in palynological studies- forensic-pollen allergy-oil exploration-paleopalynology. 6. Palynology in relation to taxonomy- eurypalynous and stenopalynous taxa. References: 1. Sripad N. Agashe. Palynology and its Application. 2. Kahinath Bhattacharya et. al. A Text Book of Palynology. Laboratory Techniques 1. Study of the following instruments - their uses and principles: a. Microscope: microscopic measurements - camera lucida, micrometry. b. Microtomes- Sledge, Rocking, Rotary. 2. Killing, fixing and staining of plant tissues: a. Important reagents and chemicals used in the preparation of fixatives and their properties. b. Fixatives - FAA, Carnoy's fluid, chrome acetic, Nawaschins fluid, Craf, Flemings- composition, preparation and specific uses. c. Dehydrating agents, clearing agents, mounting medía. Examples and brief description. d. Stains - classification, composition and specific uses - safranin, crystal violet, cotton blue, fast green, Orange - G, hematoxylin, carmine. e. Brief account of vital staining. f. Staining techniques - Double staining. i. Saffranin - Fast green ii. Crystal violet - OrangeG iii. Methods of embedding plant materials in paraffin wax - TBA method; embedding for Electron microscopy. iv. Sectioning of embedded paraffin wax materials using Rotary Microtome. v. Double stainíng of microtome serial sections embedding in paraffin wax - Saffranin - fast green; Crystal violet - Orange G / Erythrosin. vi. Whole mounts - general account vii. Maceration, smears viii. Histochemical tests – (1) PAS Test - insoluble polysaccharides. (2) Sudan black -lipids (3) Fuelgen reaction - Nucleic Acids.

References: 1. Peter Gray. Hand book of Basic microtechnique. Mcgraw – Hill. 2. John E. Sass. Botanical Microtechnique, Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. 3. John R. Baker. Principles of Biological Microtechnique – 4. A guide book to microscopical methods. A. V. Grimstone and R.J. Saker, Cambridge Univ. press. 5. K.V. Krishnamurthy. Methods in Plant Histochemistry. CP04. PRACTICALS OF PHYCOLOGY, BRYOLOGY, PTERIDOLOGY, GYMNOSPERMS, MYCOLOGY AND LICHENOLOGY, MICROBIOLOGY, PLANT PATHOLOGY, ANGIOSPERM TAXONOMY, ANGIOSPERM EMBRYOLOGY, PALYNOLOGY AND LAB TECHNIQUES. (0.5x10+1for lab techniques = 6 hours) Phycology 1. Collection, preservation and preparation of algal herbarium (5 numbers). 2. Collection and study of the types mentioned below and their identification up to generic level using algal monographs: Chlorophyta: Pediastrum, Scenidesmus, Hydrodyctyon, Ulva, Cladophora, Pithophora, Bulbochaeta, Cephaleuros, Draparnaldiopsis, Bryopsis, Codium, Caulerpa, Halimeda, Desmids (Closterium, Cosmarium), Nitella. Xanthophyta: Botrydium. Bacillariophyta: Biddulphia, Coscinodiscus, Cymbella. Phaeophyta: Ectocarpus, Dictyota, Padina, Turbinaria. Rhodophyta: Batrachospermum, Gracilaria, Champia.. Bryology Morphorogical and structural study of representative members of the following groups using whole mount preparations, dissections and transactions: Asterella, Targionia, Cyathodium, Lunularia, Pallavicinia, Dumortiera, Porella, Anthoceros, Sphagnum and Bryum. Pteridology Study of vegetative and reproductive features of Lycopodium, Ophioglossum, Angiopteris, Osmunda, Lygodium, Ceratopteris, Pteris, Asplenium, Blechnum, Cyathea, Gleichenia, Trichomanes, Salvinia and Azolla. Study of the following fossils: Rhynia, Lepidodendron, Sphenophyllum, Calamites, Calamostachys, Zygopteris and Anachoropteris. Spore germination and development of prothallus in Knop's Agar medium. A study of Pteridophytes in their natural habitats. Gymnosperms ldentification of petrifications, compressions, impressions: Lyginopteris, Heterangium, Medullosa, Trignocarpus, Glossopteris, Caytonia, Pentaxylon and Cordaites. Study of vegetative and reproductive structures of Zamia, Ginkgo, Pinus, Cryptomeria, Cupressus, Araucaria, Agathis, Podocarpus, Cephalotaxus, Ephedra and Gnetum. Mycology Critical study of the following types with the help of fesh/preserved materials by making suitable micropreparations giving emphasis on systematic position, details of vegetative and reproductive structures: Stemonitis, Saprolegnia, Phytophthora, Albugo, Mucor, Pilobolus, Saccharomyces, Xylaria, Chaetomium, Peziza, Puccinia, Auricularia, Polyporus, Ganoderma, Lycoperdon, Dictyophora, Geastrum, Cyathus, Aspergillus, Curvularia, Alternaria, Fusarium, ColIetotrichum, Parmelia, Usnea. Microbiology Test for the presence of coliform bacteria in contaminated water. lsolation of Eubacteria and Cyanobacteria from soil by dilution plate method. lsolation of pure bacterial culture by streak plate method. Staining of bacteria (negative staining, Gram staining and spore staining). Demonstration of bacterial motility by hanging drop method. Morphological studies on Scytonema, Aphanocapsa, Spirulina, Oscillatoria, Anabaena.

Plant Pathology Detailed lab study of the following diseases: Bunchy top of banana, Bacterial blight of paddy, Bud rot of coconut, Mahali of Arecanut, Powdery mildew of rubber, Abnormal leaf fall of rubber, tikka disease of Ground nut, Late blight of potato, Blister blight of tea, wheat rust, coffee rust, grey leaf spot of coconut, Phytophthora foot rot of pepper, rhizome rot of ginger and turmeric, angiospermic parasites- Viscum and Dendropthoe. Technique of isolation and pure culture of pathogens. Angiosperm Anatomy Study of anomalous secondary growth in roots and stems of Aristolochia, Strychnos, Amaranthaceae, Nyctaginaceae, Bignoniaceae and Agavaceae. Nodal anatomy of different types. Leaf anatomy: epidermal peels and TS of lamina. Embryology 1. Study of anther developmenl of Datura. 2. Preparation of dissected whole mounts of microsporangium. 3. Study of megaspore mother cell, megaspore and embryo sac. 4.Study of the receptivity of stigma and in situ germination of pollen. 5. Dissection of stages in the development of embryo and endosperm. 6. Pollen germination using hanging drop technique. 7. Demonstration of intra ovarian pollination. Palynology 1. Anaiysis of honey for microscopic examination of pollen. 2. Calculation of percentage of viable pollen by using T Z test. 3.Study of pollen wall by acetolysis. Lab Techniques 1. Measurement of microscopic objects - Micrometry. 2. Camera lucida drawing - calculation of magnification 3. Double stained permanent sections - free hand section, Microtome serial sections. 4. Preparation of whole mounts, macerations and smears. 5. Submission of 10 permanent slides - which should include microtome serial sections, free hand sections, macerations, whole mounts and smears. Practical records: Submission of certified record of practicals at the time of terminal evaluation. Field work: 3 days of field work for the in situ study of the types of the above areas of study and submission of a field report.

Not to be confused with the genus of flowering plants, Hepatica, that may also be called "liverwort".

The Marchantiophyta ( listen) are a division of non-vascularland plants commonly referred to as hepatics or liverworts. Like mosses and hornworts, they have a gametophyte-dominant life cycle, in which cells of the plant carry only a single set of genetic information.

It is estimated that there are about 9000 species of liverworts. Some of the more familiar species grow as a flattened leafless thallus, but most species are leafy with a form very much like a flattened moss. Leafy species can be distinguished from the apparently similar mosses on the basis of a number of features, including their single-celled rhizoids. Leafy liverworts also differ from most (but not all) mosses in that their leaves never have a costa (present in many mosses) and may bear marginal cilia (very rare in mosses). Other differences are not universal for all mosses and liverworts, but the occurrence of leaves arranged in three ranks, the presence of deep lobes or segmented leaves, or a lack of clearly differentiated stem and leaves all point to the plant being a liverwort.

Liverworts are typically small, usually from 2–20 mm wide with individual plants less than 10 cm long, and are therefore often overlooked. However, certain species may cover large patches of ground, rocks, trees or any other reasonably firm substrate on which they occur. They are distributed globally in almost every available habitat, most often in humid locations although there are desert and Arctic species as well. Some species can be a nuisance in shady greenhouses or a weed in gardens.[4]

Physical characteristics[edit]


Most liverworts are small, measuring from 2–20 millimetres (0.08–0.8 in) wide with individual plants less than 10 centimetres (4 in) long,[5] so they are often overlooked. The most familiar liverworts consist of a prostrate, flattened, ribbon-like or branching structure called a thallus (plant body); these liverworts are termed thallose liverworts. However, most liverworts produce flattened stems with overlapping scales or leaves in two or more ranks, the middle rank is often conspicuously different from the outer ranks; these are called leafy liverworts or scale liverworts.[6][7] (See the gallery below for examples.)

Liverworts can most reliably be distinguished from the apparently similar mosses by their single-celled rhizoids.[8] Other differences are not universal for all mosses and all liverworts;[7] but the lack of clearly differentiated stem and leaves in thallose species, or in leafy species the presence of deeply lobed or segmented leaves and the presence of leaves arranged in three ranks, all point to the plant being a liverwort.[9][10] Unlike any other embryophytes, most liverworts contain unique membrane-bound oil bodies containing isoprenoids in at least some of their cells, lipid droplets in the cytoplasm of all other plants being unenclosed.[11] The overall physical similarity of some mosses and leafy liverworts means that confirmation of the identification of some groups can be performed with certainty only with the aid of microscopy or an experienced bryologist.

Liverworts have a gametophyte-dominant life cycle, with the sporophyte dependent on the gametophyte.[11] Cells in a typical liverwort plant each contain only a single set of genetic information, so the plant's cells are haploid for the majority of its life cycle. This contrasts sharply with the pattern exhibited by nearly all animals and by most other plants. In the more familiar seed plants, the haploid generation is represented only by the tiny pollen and the ovule, while the diploid generation is the familiar tree or other plant.[12] Another unusual feature of the liverwort life cycle is that sporophytes (i.e. the diploid body) are very short-lived, withering away not long after releasing spores.[13] Even in other bryophytes, the sporophyte is persistent and disperses spores over an extended period.[citation needed]

Life cycle[edit]

The life of a liverwort starts from the germination of a haploid spore to produce a protonema, which is either a mass of thread-like filaments or else a flattened thallus.[14][15] The protonema is a transitory stage in the life of a liverwort, from which will grow the mature gametophore ("gamete-bearer") plant that produces the sex organs. The male organs are known as antheridia (singular: antheridium) and produce the sperm cells. Clusters of antheridia are enclosed by a protective layer of cells called the perigonium (plural: perigonia). As in other land plants, the female organs are known as archegonia (singular: archegonium) and are protected by the thin surrounding perichaetum (plural: perichaeta).[7] Each archegonium has a slender hollow tube, the "neck", down which the sperm swim to reach the egg cell.

Liverwort species may be either dioicous or monoicous. In dioicous liverworts, female and male sex organs are borne on different and separate gametophyte plants. In monoicous liverworts, the two kinds of reproductive structures are borne on different branches of the same plant.[16] In either case, the sperm must move from the antheridia where they are produced to the archegonium where the eggs are held. The sperm of liverworts is biflagellate, i.e. they have two tail-like flagellae that enable them to swim short distances,[17] provided that at least a thin film of water is present. Their journey may be assisted by the splashing of raindrops. In 2008, Japanese researchers discovered that some liverworts are able to fire sperm-containing water up to 15 cm in the air, enabling them to fertilize female plants growing more than a metre from the nearest male.[18]

When sperm reach the archegonia, fertilisation occurs, leading to the production of a diploid sporophyte. After fertilisation, the immature sporophyte within the archegonium develops three distinct regions: (1) a foot, which both anchors the sporophyte in place and receives nutrients from its "mother" plant, (2) a spherical or ellipsoidal capsule, inside which the spores will be produced for dispersing to new locations, and (3) a seta (stalk) which lies between the other two regions and connects them.[17] When the sporophyte has developed all three regions, the seta elongates, pushing its way out of the archegonium and rupturing it. While the foot remains anchored within the parent plant, the capsule is forced out by the seta and is extended away from the plant and into the air. Within the capsule, cells divide to produce both elater cells and spore-producing cells. The elaters are spring-like, and will push open the wall of the capsule to scatter themselves when the capsule bursts. The spore-producing cells will undergo meiosis to form haploid spores to disperse, upon which point the life cycle can start again.

Asexual reproduction[edit]

Some liverworts are capable of asexual reproduction; in bryophytes in general "it would almost be true to say that vegetative reproduction is the rule and not the exception."[19] For example, in Riccia, when the older parts of the forked thalli die, the younger tips become separate individuals.[19]

Some thallose liverworts such as Marchantia polymorpha and Lunularia cruciata produce small disc-shaped gemmae in shallow cups.[20]Marchantia gemmae can be dispersed up to 120 cm by rain splashing into the cups.[21] In Metzgeria, gemmae grow at thallus margins.[22]Marchantia polymorpha is a common weed in greenhouses, often covering the entire surface of containers;[23]:230 gemma dispersal is the "primary mechanism by which liverwort spreads throughout a nursery or greenhouse."[23]:231


Today, liverworts can be found in many ecosystems across the planet except the sea and excessively dry environments, or those exposed to high levels of direct solar radiation.[24] As with most groups of living plants, they are most common (both in numbers and species) in moist tropical areas.[25] Liverworts are more commonly found in moderate to deep shade, though desert species may tolerate direct sunlight and periods of total desiccation.


Relationship to other plants[edit]

Traditionally, the liverworts were grouped together with other bryophytes (mosses and hornworts) in the Division Bryophyta, within which the liverworts made up the class Hepaticae (also called Marchantiopsida).[7][26] However, since this grouping makes the Bryophyta paraphyletic, the liverworts are now usually given their own division.[27] The use of the division name Bryophyta sensu lato is still found in the literature, but more frequently the Bryophyta now is used in a restricted sense to include only the mosses.

Another reason that liverworts are now classified separately is that they appear to have diverged from all other embryophyte plants near the beginning of their evolution. The strongest line of supporting evidence is that liverworts are the only living group of land plants that do not have stomata on the sporophyte generation.[28] Among the earliest fossils believed to be liverworts are compression fossils of Pallaviciniites from the Upper Devonian of New York.[29] These fossils resemble modern species in the Metzgeriales.[30] Another Devonian fossil called Protosalvinia also looks like a liverwort, but its relationship to other plants is still uncertain, so it may not belong to the Marchantiophyta. In 2007, the oldest fossils assignable at that time to the liverworts were announced, Metzgeriothallus sharonae from the Givetian (Middle Devonian) of New York, United States.[31] However, in 2010, five different types of fossilized liverwort spores were found in Argentina, dating to the much earlier Middle Ordovician, around 470 million years ago.[1][32]

Internal classification[edit]

Bryologists classify liverworts in the division Marchantiophyta. This divisional name is based on the name of the most universally recognized liverwort genus Marchantia.[33] In addition to this taxon-based name, the liverworts are often called Hepaticophyta. This name is derived from their common Latin name as Latin was the language in which botanists published their descriptions of species. This name has led to some confusion,[citation needed] partly because it appears to be a taxon-based name derived from the genusHepatica which is actually a flowering plant of the buttercup family Ranunculaceae. In addition, the name Hepaticophyta is frequently misspelled in textbooks as Hepatophyta, which only adds to the confusion.

Although there is no consensus among bryologists as to the classification of liverworts above family rank,[34] the Marchantiophyta may be subdivided into three classes:[35][36][37][38]

An updated classification by Söderström et al. 2016[41]

It is estimated that there are about 9000 species of liverworts, at least 85% of which belong to the leafy group.[3][42] Despite that fact, no liverwort genomes have been sequenced to date and only few genes identified and characterized.[43]

Economic importance[edit]

In ancient times, it was believed that liverworts cured diseases of the liver, hence the name.[44] In Old English, the word liverwort literally means liver plant.[45] This probably stemmed from the superficial appearance of some thalloid liverworts (which resemble a liver in outline), and led to the common name of the group as hepatics, from the Latin word hēpaticus for "belonging to the liver". An unrelated flowering plant, Hepatica, is sometimes also referred to as liverwort because it was once also used in treating diseases of the liver. This archaic relationship of plant form to function was based in the "Doctrine of Signatures".[46]

Liverworts have little direct economic importance today. Their greatest impact is indirect, through the reduction of erosion along streambanks, their collection and retention of water in tropical forests, and the formation of soil crusts in deserts and polar regions. However, a few species are used by humans directly. A few species, such as Riccia fluitans, are aquatic thallose liverworts sold for use in aquariums. Their thin, slender branches float on the water's surface and provide habitat for both small invertebrates and the fish that feed on them.


A small collection of images showing liverwort structure and diversity:

See also[edit]


  1. ^ abWalker, Matt. "Fossils of earliest land plants discovered in Argentina" [1]. (BBC, Earth News, 2010).
  2. ^Stotler, Raymond E.; Barbara J. Candall-Stotler (1977). "A checklist of the liverworts and hornworts of North America". The Bryologist. American Bryological and Lichenological Society. 80 (3): 405–428. doi:10.2307/3242017. JSTOR 3242017. 
  3. ^ abCrandall-Stotler, Barbara; Stotler, Raymond E. (2000). "Morphology and classification of the Marchantiophyta". In A. Jonathan Shaw & Bernard Goffinet (Eds.). Bryophyte Biology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 21. ISBN 0-521-66097-1. 
  4. ^Schuster, Rudolf M. The Hepaticae and Anthocerotae of North America, volume VI, page 19. (Chicago: Field Museum of Natural History, 1992). ISBN 0-914868-21-7.
  5. ^Schuster, Rudolf M. The Hepaticae and Anthocerotae of North America, volume I, pages 243-244. (New York: Columbia University Press, 1966)
  6. ^Kashyap, Shiv Ram. Liverworts of the Western Himalayas and the Panjab Plain, volume I, page 1. (New Delhi: The Chronica Botanica, 1929)
  7. ^ abcdSchofield, W. B. Introduction to Bryology, pages 135-140. (New York: Macmillan, 1985). ISBN 0-02-949660-8.
  8. ^Nehira, Kunito. "Spore Germination, Protonemata Development and Sporeling Development", page 347 in Rudolf M. Schuster (Ed.), New Manual of Bryology, volume I. (Nichinan, Miyazaki, Japan: The Hattori Botanical Laboratory, 1983). ISBN 49381633045.
  9. ^Allison, K. W. & John Child. The Liverworts of New Zealand, pages 13-14. (Dunedin: University of Otago Press, 1975).
  10. ^Conard, Henry S. and Paul L. Redfearn, Jr. How to Know the Mosses and Liverworts, revised ed., pages 12-23. (Dubuque, Iowa: William C. Brown Co., 1979) ISBN 0-697-04768-7
  11. ^ abHarold C. Bold, C. J. Alexopoulos, and T. Delevoryas. Morphology of Plants and Fungi, 5th ed., page 189. (New York: Harper-Collins, 1987). ISBN 0-06-040839-1.
  12. ^Fosket, Donald E. Plant Growth and Development: A Molecular Approach, page 27. (San Diego: Academic Press, 1994). ISBN 0-12-262430-0.
  13. ^Hicks, Marie L. Guide to the Liverworts of North Carolina, page 10. (Durham: Duke University Press, 1992). ISBN 0-8223-1175-5.
  14. ^Nehira, Kunito. "Spore Germination, Protonemata Development and Sporeling Development", pages 358-374 in Rudolf M. Schuster (Ed.), New Manual of Bryology, volume I. (Nichinan, Miyazaki, Japan: The Hattori Botanical Laboratory, 1983). ISBN 49381633045.
  15. ^Chopra, R. N. & P. K. Kumra. Biology of Bryophytes, pages 1-38. (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1988). ISBN 0-470-21359-0.
  16. ^Malcolm, Bill & Nancy Malcolm. Mosses and Other Bryophytes: An Illustrated Glossary, pages 6 & 128. (New Zealand: Micro-Optics Press, 2000). ISBN 0-473-06730-7.
  17. ^ abCampbell, Douglas H. The Structure and Development of Mosses and Ferns, pages 73-74. (London: The Macmillan Co., 1918)
  18. ^Pain, S. (2010). "Botanical ballistics". New Scientist. 208 (2792/3): 45–47. doi:10.1016/s0262-4079(10)63177-6. 
  19. ^ abLepp, Heino (15 April 2008). "Vegetative Reproduction". Australian Bryopytes. Australian National Botanic Gardens. Retrieved December 22, 2011. 
  20. ^Smith, AJE (1989) The Liverworts of Britain and Ireland, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  21. ^Equihua, C. (1987). "Splash-Cup Dispersal Of Gemmae In The Liverwort Marchantia-Polymorpha". Cryptogamie Bryologie Lichenologie. 8 (3): 199–217. Archived from the original on 2012-04-26. 
  22. ^Lepp, Heino (28 February 2008). "Reproduction & Dispersal". Australian Bryopytes. Australian National Botanic Gardens. Retrieved December 22, 2011. 
  23. ^ abNewby, Adam, and James E. Altland, Charles H. Gilliam, and Glenn Wehtje (December 2006). "J. Environ. Hort. 24(4)"(PDF). Postemergence Liverwort Control in Container-Grown Nursery Crops1. Horticultural Research Institute. pp. 230–236. Archived from the original(PDF) on July 24, 2012. Retrieved December 24, 2011. 
  24. ^Schuster, Rudolf M. The Hepaticae and Anthocerotae of North America, volume I, pages 243-249. (New York: Columbia University Press, 1966).
  25. ^Pócs, Tamás. "Tropical Forest Bryophytes", page 59 in A. J. E. Smith (Ed.) Bryophyte Ecology. (London: Chapman and Hall, 1982). ISBN 0-412-22340-6.
  26. ^Crandall-Stotler, Barbara. & Stotler, Raymond E. "Morphology and classification of the Marchantiophyta". page 36-38 in A. Jonathan Shaw & Bernard Goffinet (Eds.), Bryophyte Biology. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press:2000). ISBN 0-521-66097-1
  27. ^Goffinet, Bernard. "Origin and phylogenetic relationships of bryophytes". pages 124-149 in A. Jonathan Shaw & Bernard Goffinet (Eds.), Bryophyte Biology. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press:2000). ISBN 0-521-66097-1
  28. ^Kenrick, Paul & Peter R. Crane. The Origin and Early Diversification of Land Plants: A Cladistic Study, page 59. (Washington, D. C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1997). ISBN 1-56098-730-8.
  29. ^Taylor, Thomas N. & Edith L. Taylor. The Biology and Evolution of Fossil Plants, page 139. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1993). ISBN 0-13-651589-4.
  30. ^Oostendorp, Cora. The Bryophytes of the Palaeozoic and the Mesozoic, pages 70-71. (Bryophytum Bibliotheca, Band 34, 1987). ISBN 3-443-62006-X.
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External links[edit]

Look up liverwort in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Sexual life cycle of a Marchantia-like liverwort

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