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Evolution Assignment Powerpoint Sci 230 Levels

BIOL 11000 - Fundamentals of Biology I - Session Offered: Fall

BIOL 11000/11100 is a two-semester principles of biology sequence that introduces students to the major concepts of the discipline, with emphasis on the experimental and logical basis of the information presented. BIOL 11000/11100 includes lectures and laboratories that begin with atoms and build to the diversity of life. Topics include chemistry, biochemistry of macromolecules, cell structure and function, photosynthesis, respiration, evolution, the diversity of life and DNA structure and replication.


BIOL 11000 - Fundamentals of Biology I - Session Offered: Spring

BIOL 11000/11100 is a two-semester principles of biology sequence that introduces students to the major concepts of the discipline, with emphasis on the experimental and logical basis of the information presented.  BIOL 11000/11100 includes lectures and laboratories that begin with atoms and build to the diversity of life.  Topics include chemistry, biochemistry of macromolecules, cell structure and function, photosynthesis, respiration, evolution, the diversity of life and DNA structure and replication.  This course is intended as the first semester of two semesters.  These courses are NOT independent and should be taken in sequence.


BIOL 11000 - Fundamentals of Biology I - Session Offered: Summer

BIOL 110/111 is a two-semester principles of biology sequence that introduces students to the major concepts of the discipline, with emphasis on the experimental and logical basis of the information presented.BIOL 110/111 includes lectures and laboratories that begin with atoms and build to the diversity of life.Topics include chemistry, biochemistry of macromolecules, cell structure and function, photosynthesis, respiration, evolution, the diversity of life and DNA structure and replication.


BIOL 11100 - Fundamentals of Biology II - Session Offered: Fall

BIOL 11100 focuses on genetics, molecular biology, physiology and development.


BIOL 11200 - Fundamentals of Biology I - Session Offered: Spring Fall

 BIOL 11200 will be offered as distance learning, Fall 2017 and spring 2018 during the 2nd 8 weeks of the semester

Please note:  BIOL 11300 does NOT have to be taken if it is not required by your major.

BIOL 11200/11300 is a two-semester principles of biology sequence that introduces students to the major concepts of the discipline, with emphasis on the experimental and logical basis of the information presented.  BIOL 11200/11300 includes lectures that begin with atoms and build to the diversity of life.  Topics include chemistry, biochemistry of macromolecules, cell structure and function, photosynthesis, respiration, evolution, the diversity of life and DNA structure and replication.   This course is intended as the first semester of two semesters.  These courses are NOT independent and should be taken in sequence.


BIOL 11300 - Fundamentals of Biology II - Session Offered: Fall

 

BIOL 11300  focuses on genetics, molecular biology, physiology and development.


BIOL 11300 - Fundamentals of Biology II - Session Offered: Spring

BIOL 11300  focuses on genetics, molecular biology, physiology and development.


BIOL 11500 - Biology Resource Seminar - Session Offered: Fall

The Biology Resource Seminar is a one-credit course for freshman biology majors. The course is designed to help integrate new biology students into the Department of Biological Sciences, to help them adjust to university life, and to assist them in developing academic and intellectual survival skills using the medium of introductory Biology courses. Each presentation section of this course is led by an academic advisor and an undergraduate teaching intern. The course meets twice a week in groups of approximately 20 students.


BIOL 12100 - Biology I: Diversity, Ecology, and Behavior - Session Offered: Summer Fall

Overview of the unity and diversity of life. We attempt to construct a framework for ordering biology by studying both the shared and specialized modifications of organisms that allow them to adapt to their environment. We also apply biological principles to social, medical and environmental issues. Topics include: diversity of life, respiration, photosynthesis, mitosis/meiosis, Mendelian genetics and complications, natural selection, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, population growth (including humans), interactions among populations (competition, predation, parasitism), behavior, and conservation biology.


BIOL 13100 - Biology II: Development, Structure and Function of Organisms - Session Offered: Spring

 Option 1

BIOL 13100 -16106

introduces embryonic development and examines the functioning of physiological systems of both plants and animals. The underlying cellular and molecular basis for these processes will be emphasized. In particular, the transport of molecules and small ions through biological membranes will be studied. This will require an understanding of membrane structure, diffusion, electrical potentials and other physical and chemical principles. In addition to the specific topics covered, an important objective of this course will be to connect what is covered to both current and historical research endeavors, to prepare Biology majors for further study in the curriculum of the Department of Biological Sciences. While students other than Biology majors are welcome, they should be aware that the rigorous approach taken in this course will require considerable time and effort. A number of problem sets will be posed and students will write and peer review several essays to explain how experimental and quantitative aspects of biology have changed along a historical continuum. Regular weekly help sessions (run by both the professor and student aids) will be arranged to provide the chance to ask questions and discuss particular points in greater depth than the large lecture format permits.

 

PSO for Biology majors only


BIOL 13500 - First Year Biology Laboratory - Session Offered: Fall

Laboratory exercises emphasizing student mastery of basic laboratory skills needed to succeed in the biological sciences; intended for beginning (first-year) biology majors.

 

 


BIOL 19500 - Organismal Dev & Physiology - Session Offered: Spring

This course provides an integrated approach to examining how plants and animals develop and defining what the interrelationships are between the structure and function of organisms. There will be a significant amount of effort placed on concepts that bridge underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms with development and physiology.  Students will be strongly encouraged to initiate and participate in discussions related to course topics during class and PSO meetings. Topics to be covered in lectures include areas in the physical and chemical basis of life, molecular basis of regulation and aspects of experimental biology.  


BIOL 19500 - Advanced Writing Lab Introduction Biology - Session Offered: Spring

BIOL 19500 - Year 1 BIO Lab:Disease Ecology - Session Offered: Fall

Course description:

The course will engage students in authentic research while acquiring the necessary skills and concepts to be a successful biology major. Our research topic will be disease ecology in freshwater systems. Disease ecology is a growing field investigating the causes and effects of pathogen transmission and epidemics, primarily in natural populations. We will begin with a series of skill and knowledge building laboratories, and then transition into independent research projects that culminate in presentation of the data in a poster session. Students will learn the fundamentals of disease ecology, basic laboratory techniques, and how to perform scientific experiments from start to finish (designing and implementing experiments, interpreting experimental results, and communicating findings to other scientists and the public).


BIOL 19500 - Year 1 Biology Lab:Phages to Folds - Session Offered: Fall

The course will provide students an introduction into the world of scientific reserach within a real laboratory setting and work on active research projects.  Students will acquire the fundamental skills and concepts necessary to be successful as a biology major and as a research scientist.

This section will be an extension of the successful HHMI-funded SEA-PHAGES program which focuses on the discovery of new bacteriophages and characterization of their genome. A far majority of the bateriophage genes that are discovered have no known function or structure, therefore, in this section, students will learn how to use bioinformatics to study a gene sequence of their choice from the local SEA-PHAGES program.

Students will then clone their gene using the latest cloning techniques, express it using recombinant expression methods, purify it using metal affinity chromatography, and then perform structural characterization of their gene product using biophysical techniques.

The goal of each project will be to gain insight into the 3-dimensional fold of each of these mysterious novel phage genes.


BIOL 19700 - Biology Freshman Honors Seminar - Session Offered: Fall

This class includes discussion of topics related to futures and careers in biology, and current research opportunities in biology.Various faculty members present ongoing research projects being conducted in different areas of biology in Biological Sciences.Students will have an opportunity to visit a research lab.Some in-class projects designed to introduce students how to think as a researcher will also be conducted.Open only to students in the Biological Sciences Honors Program.The credit may be used only toward free electives.


BIOL 20100 - Human Anatomy and Physiology - Session Offered: Fall

BIOL 20100/20200 is a two-semester course designed to give the student a basic understanding of the anatomy, organization and function of the human body. There will be introductory lectures on the basic concepts of biochemistry and cell biology before the major topics of the course are dealt with. These topics include the basic organization of the human body; muscle and bone; the nervous system (including the special senses); the cardiovascular system; respiration; digestion, metabolism, excretion, fluid, electrolyte and acid-base balance; the endocrine system; reproduction and genetics. The subject matter will be related to relevant questions of clinical or health-related importance. This is the first semester of a two-semester sequence. BIOL 20100 is a prerequisite for BIOL 20200. NOTE:  Not available for credit toward graduation for majors in the Department of Biological Sciences.


BIOL 20200 - Human Anatomy and Physiology - Session Offered: Spring

BIOL 20200 is the second semester of a two-semester course that includes two 50-minute lectures designed to give the student a basic understanding of the anatomy, organization and function of the human body.  To assist the student in mastering the subject matter, there will be introductory lectures on the basic concepts of biochemistry and cell biology before the major topics of the course are dealt with.  These topics include the organization of the human body; muscle and bone; the nervous system (including the special senses); the cardiovascular system, respiration; digestion; metabolism; excretion; fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance; the endocrine system; reproduction and genetics.  The subject matter will be related to relevant questions of clinical or health-related importance.  This is the second semester of a two-semester sequence.  BIOL 20200/20400 should NOT be taken out of sequence.  Any student wishing to do so must obtain the instructors permission.  NOTE:  Not available for credit toward graduation for majors in the Department of Biological Sciences.


BIOL 20300 - Human Anatomy and Physiology - Session Offered: Fall

BIOL 20300/20400 is a two-semester 8-credit course designed to give the student a basic understanding of the anatomy, organization and function of the human body. There will be introductory lectures on the basic concepts of biochemistry and cell biology before the major topics of the course are dealt with. For the two semesters, these topics include the organization of the human body; muscle and bone; the nervous system (including the special senses); the cardiovascular system; respiration; digestion; metabolism, excretion, fluid; electrolyte and acid-base balance; the endocrine system; reproduction and genetics. The subject matter will be related to clinical and health-related issues.The laboratory is a hands-on experience designed to complement the lectures. Many labs will use computer assisted data acquisition equipment to carry out experiments on muscle, heart and brain. This is the first semester of a two-semester sequence. BIOL 20300 is a prerequisite for BIOL 20400.  NOTE:  Not available for credit toward graduation for majors in the Department of Biological Sciences.


BIOL 20300 - Human Anatomy and Physiology (Nursing Nexus Learning Community) - Session Offered: Fall

BIOL 20300/20400 is a two-semester 8-credit course designed to give the student a basic understanding of the anatomy, organization and function of the human body. There will be introductory lectures on the basic concepts of biochemistry and cell biology before the major topics of the course are dealt with. For the two semesters, these topics include the organization of the human body; muscle and bone; the nervous system (including the special senses); the cardiovascular system; respiration; digestion; metabolism, excretion, fluid; electrolyte and acid-base balance; the endocrine system; reproduction and genetics. The subject matter will be related to clinical and health-related issues.The laboratory is a hands-on experience designed to complement the lectures. Many labs will use computer assisted data acquisition equipment to carry out experiments on muscle, heart and brain.  This is the first semester of a two-semester sequence. BIOL 20300 is a prerequisite for BIOL 20400. This section of the course is for Nursing Learning Community students only.


BIOL 20300 - Human Anatomy and Physiology - Session Offered: Summer

BIOL 20300/20400 is a two-semester 8-credit course designed to give the student a basic understanding of the anatomy, organization and function of the human body. There will be introductory lectures on the basic concepts of biochemistry and cell biology before the major topics of the course are dealt with. For the two semesters, these topics include the organization of the human body; muscle and bone; the nervous system (including the special senses); the cardiovascular system; respiration; digestion; metabolism, excretion, fluid; electrolyte and acid-base balance; the endocrine system; reproduction and genetics. The subject matter will be related to clinical and health-related issues.The laboratory is a hands-on experience designed to complement the lectures. Many labs will use computer assisted data acquisition equipment to carry out experiments on muscle, heart and brain. This is the first semester of a two-semester sequence. BIOL 203 is a prerequisite for BIOL 204. NOTE:  Not available for credit toward graduation for majors in the Department of Biological Sciences.


BIOL 20400 - Human Anatomy and Physiology - Session Offered: Spring

 

BIOL 20400 is the second semester of a two-semester course that includes two 50-minute lectures, one recitation in preparation for the laboratory, and one two-hour lab. This course is designed to give the student a basic understanding of the anatomy, organization and function of the human body.  To assist the student in mastering the subject matter, the introductory lectures in BIO 20300 cover the basic concepts of biochemistry and cell biology.  The topics covered in BIO 20400 include respiration; digestion; metabolism; excretion; fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance; the endocrine system; reproduction and genetics. The subject matter will be related to relevant questions of clinical or health-related importance.  This is the second semester of a two-semester sequence.  BIOL 20200/20400 should NOT be taken out of sequence.  Any student wishing to do so must obtain the instructors permission.  NOTE:  Not available for credit toward graduation for majors in the Department of Biological Sciences.


BIOL 20400 - Human Anatomy and Physiology (Nursing Learning Community) - Session Offered: Spring

BIOL 20400 (Nursing Learning Community)  is the second semester of a two-semester course that includes two 50-minute lectures, one recitation in preparation for the laboratory, and one two-hour lab. This course is designed to give the student a basic understanding of the anatomy, organization and function of the human body.  To assist the student in mastering the subject matter, there will be introductory lectures on the basic concepts of biochemistry and cell biology before the major topics of the course are dealt with.  These topics include the organization of the human body; muscle and bone; the nervous system (including the special senses); the cardiovascular system; respiration; digestion; metabolism; excretion; fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance; the endocrine system; reproduction and genetics.  The subject matter will be related to relevant questions of clinical or health-related importance. This is the second semester of a two-semester sequence.  BIOL 20200/20400 should NOT be taken out of sequence.  Any student wishing to do so must obtain the instructors permission.  This section of the course is for Nursing Learning Community students only.


BIOL 20500 - Biology for Elementary School Teachers - Session Offered: Fall

Unifying concepts of biology taught with materials appropriate for future elementary school teachers.  Does not satisfy requirements for College of Science majors. A major objective of this course is to help students develop the ability to identify, pursue and resolve a scientific problem. This includes making careful observations, accurately recording, organizing, and analyzing data and formulating reasonable databased conclusions. The activities in the course will focus on the topics of ecosystems, biological energy (i.e. photosynthesis and cellular respiration), and cell structure and function.  NOTE:  Not available for credit toward graduation for majors in the Department of Biological Sciences.


BIOL 20600 - BIOLOGY FOR ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHERS - Session Offered: Spring

Continuation of BIOL 205.  (However, BIOL 205 is not a pre-requisite for BIOL 206). Unifying concepts of biology taught with materials appropriate for future elementary school teachers.  Does not satisfy requirements for College of Science majors.  Content areas to be covered this semester include meiosis, genetics, diversity, evolution, and human body systems.  Emphasis is put on learning biology through collaborative problem solving and inquiry.


BIOL 20600 - Biology for Elementary School Teachers - Session Offered: Spring

Continuation of BIOL 20500.  (However, BIOL 20500 is not a pre-requisite for BIOL 20600).  Unifying concepts of biology taught with materials appropriate for future elementary school teachers.  Content areas to be covered this semester include meiosis, genetics, diversity, evolution, and human body systems. Emphasis is put on learning biology through collaborative problem solving and inquiry. Formal lab write-up will be required for one of the laboratory experiments conducted.  NOTE:  Does not satisfy requirements for College of Science majors- Students who are not elementary education majors should contact the instructor before enrolling in this course.  NOTE:  Not available for credit toward graduation for majors in the Department of Biological Sciences.


BIOL 22100 - Introduction to Microbiology - Session Offered: Spring Summer Fall

 

Microbiology is a rapidly expanding field of study, currently drawing information from and contributing information to nearly all the sciences from cellular chemistry to global climate change.  Microbiologists are called upon to address issues in medicine, food science, agriculture and biotechnology.  A thorough introduction to the subject is important for students in many disciplines.  Although Bio 22100 is an introduction, most students will find it a challenging course due to the breadth of science that even basic microbiology encompasses.  We will cover the following topics: biochemistry; microscopy; bacterial physiology; growth and metabolism; growth control ; genetics and its modern applications; immunology; pathogenesis, including specific microorganisms of medical importance; agricultural and environmental microbiology; and food microbiology.  After successfully completing Bio 22100, a student will have the background in microbiology necessary for further study in medicine or allied health sciences, microbial ecology, antimicrobial pharmacology and related disciplines.  He or she will also have an understanding of the microbiological diversity in the biosphere, and be better prepared to appreciate the extent to which microbiology shapes our daily lives. NOTE:  Not available for credit toward graduation for majors in the Department of Biological Sciences.


BIOL 23000 - The Biology of the Living Cell - Session Offered: Fall

Cells are amazing, multifunctional machines that are subject to the same physical constraints as machines made by humans. This is an exciting time to learn biology because the ability to understand and manipulate cellular machinery can lead to major improvements in the global quality of life, including health, food production and energy use! An introduction to cell biology builds on a foundation of the physical sciences and explores the complexity of life. The course is divided into five main subject areas:

1. First Principles. We will review the relevant physical principles of thermodynamics and biological chemistry. The macromolecules that form a cell - proteins, membrane lipids, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates - will be discussed.

2. Bioenergetics. We will discuss how the living cell transduces energy into useful currency. Topics include oxidation, reduction, glycolysis, ATP synthesis, and the harnessing of potential energy across biological membranes to do useful work.

3. Information flow in cells (the Central Dogma). DNA is transcribed to RNA. Messenger RNA is translated to protein. Proteins are often modified post-translationally and targeted to specific locations in the cell.

4. Responding to the Environment. How do cells respond to their environment? We will discuss the different strategies that have evolved in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Topics include gene regulation and cellular signaling.

5. Cellular Systems. We will discuss a few examples that illustrate biological complexity. Topics may include cell division, cell motility, and intercellular communication.


BIOL 23100 - BIOL III: Cell Structure & Function - Session Offered: Fall

BIOL 23100 introduces students to cell biology through 3 over-arching themes:  First, the shape and organization of molecules, organelles and cells underlie their function.  Second, cellular organization and function require energy, and cells are in part energy-transducing machines.  Third, the cell is constantly changing -- its shape, activity and molecular composition are dynamic and transient.  Cell biology builds on a foundation of math, chemistry and physics, so we begin by discussing the structure and function of macromolecules and the most relevant principles of chemistry, kinetics and thermodynamics.

We continue with treatments of bioenergetics and biosynthesis, and then spend the second half of the course on signal transduction, intercellular communication, cell division and the cell cycle, the cytoskeleton, and cell motility.  We will draw on examples from many cell types, including neurons, fertilized eggs, muscle, and epithelia, and issues of human health and disease, including cancer, endocrine disorders, infectious disease, and nerve gas.


BIOL 23200 - Laboratory BIOL III Cell Structure and Function - Session Offered: Fall

Students are introduced to the molecular biology of the eukaryotic cell. In the first section students study topics in protein biology and biochemistry such as protein structure, function, isolation, molecular evolution, and the detection and molecular basis of human disease. Techniques used for these experiments include electrophoresis, chromatography, and the Western blot procedure. In the second section students localize enzymes in plant and animal cells, perform cell fractionation procedures, and study the properties of specific cell-surface receptor. Experiments on the properties and structure of DNA are presented in the final section of the course. These exercises stress the organization and complexity of the genome, gene function and regulation, and the structure of the eukaryotic chromosome. Techniques include restriction nuclease mapping and basic DNA cloning techniques. Students also carry out an independent research project of their own design.


BIOL 23200 - Laboratory BIOL III Cell Structure and Function - Session Offered: Summer

Students are introduced to the molecular biology of the eukaryotic cell. In the first section students study topics in protein biology and biochemistry such as protein structure, function, isolation, molecular evolution, and the detection and molecular basis of human disease. Techniques used for these experiments include electrophoresis, chromatography, and the Western blot procedure. In the second section students localize enzymes in plant and animal cells, perform cell fractionation procedures, and study the properties of specific cell-surface receptor. Experiments on the properties and structure of DNA are presented in the final section of the course. These exercises stress the organization and complexity of the genome, gene function and regulation, and the structure of the eukaryotic chromosome. Techniques include restriction nuclease mapping and basic DNA cloning techniques. Students also carry out an independent research project of their own design.


BIOL 24100 - Biology IV: Genetics and Molecular Biology - Session Offered: Spring

This course covers basic principles of classical genetics, molecular biology, and population genetics. The classical genetics section includes discussions on Mendelian genetics, linkage and meiotic mapping, sex determination, cytoplasmic inheritance, and chromosomal aberrations.  The molecular biology section continues with discussions on DNA structure and replication, chromosomal organization, transcription, translation, the genetic code, mutations, DNA repair, and transposable elements.  Basic regulatory mechanisms in prokaryotic and eukaryotic gene expression, as well as current developments (recombinant DNA technology, cancer-causing genes, imprinting, developmental genetics) are also presented.


BIOL 24200 - Laboratory Biology IV: Genetics and Molecular Biology - Session Offered: Spring

Experiments performed range from exercises in classical transmission genetics to molecular genetics and recombinant DNA techniques.


BIOL 24200 - Laboratory Biology IV: Genetics and Molecular Biology - Session Offered: Spring

Experiments in classical and modern genetics and exercises to acquaint the students with basic techniques in molecular biology


BIOL 28600 - Introduction to Ecology and Evolution - Session Offered: Spring

Evolutionary processes and ecological principles associated with individuals, populations, communities, and ecosystems.  Topics include genetic drift, natural selection, adaptation, life tables, population dynamics, competition, predation, biodiversity, and ecological stability, with emphasis on natural systems.


BIOL 28600 - Introduction to Ecology and Evolution (Distance) - Session Offered: Summer

Evolutionary processes and ecological principles associated with individuals, populations, communities, and ecosystems.  Topics include genetic drift, natural selection, adaptation, life tables, population dynamics, competition, predation, biodiversity, and ecological stability, with emphasis on natural systems.


BIOL 28600 - Introduction to Ecology and Evolution (Distance) - Session Offered: Fall

Evolutionary processes and ecological principles associated with individuals, populations, communities, and ecosystems.  Topics include genetic drift, natural selection, adaptation, life tables, population dynamics, competition, predation, biodiversity, and ecological stability, with emphasis on natural systems.


BIOL 29300 - Planning Your Future in Biology - Session Offered: Spring

Biology 29300 is a one-credit course designed for sophomores in the Department of Biological Sciences.  This course will help students maximize the remainder of their undergraduate career.  The course will cover biology career information and suggestions for professional development.  Students will learn about the various disciplines that make up modern Biological Sciences.  Students will learn about opportunities in undergraduate research and tour two research laboratories.  In-depth presentations from biology alumni from a variety of fields are featured.  Assignments include a Plan of Study, a resume, and one written paper evaluating the career path of one alumni speaker and describing the students response to the presentation.


BIOL 29400 - Biology Research - Session Offered: Fall Spring Summer

BIOL 29400- For Freshman and Sophomores.  Supervised individual research. Project must be approved by the Honors Committee, Department of Biological Sciences. Honors Research program students should register for BIOL 49900.

Please note:  A biology major can earn research credit under BIOL 29400 for working with faculty in Biological Sciences or any other department on campus.  This research must be approved on an Application for Credit in Undergraduate Research form, available in the Biology Counseling Office.

Any other major can earn credit under BIOL 29400 for working with faculty in Biological Sciences ONLY.  This research must be approved on an Application for Credit in Undergraduate Research form, available in the Biology Counseling Office.  If the student wants to earn research credit with other faculty, the student should seek credit under the course/number of the faculty members home department.


BIOL 29500 - Special Assignments - Session Offered: Fall Spring

BIOL 29500 (Sophomores) Reading, discussions, written reports, seminar presentations, and field or laboratory work provided for enrichment in special areas of the biological sciences.


BIOL 29500 - Teaching Biology - Session Offered: Spring

This course focuses on teaching and learning strategies and combines theoretical approaches to university teaching and learning with practical hands-on teaching experience.  Class activities include discussions of current issues in the classroom, presentation practice, as well as a self-assessment of the student instructors. This course is required for first time teaching interns in Biological Sciences, and the successful completion of the course is necessary for additional teaching assignments in the department.


BIOL 30100 - Human Design: Anatomy and Physiology I - Session Offered: Fall

BIOL 30100/30200 is a two-semester study of human structure and function that emphasizes physiology of body tissues and systems and includes relevant aspects of anatomy and histology. Examples from pathophysiology encourage application of knowledge to predict symptoms of disease and rationale for treatment. Topics covered in 30100 include a review of chemistry and cell biology, membrane transport processes, neurophysiology, muscle contraction, communication at synapses, spinal cord and reflexes, sensory and motor pathways in the nervous system, autonomic nervous system, special senses, and the endocrine system.


BIOL 30200 - Human Design: Anatomy and Physiology II - Session Offered: Spring

BIOL 30100/30200 is a two-semester study of human structure and function that emphasizes physiology of body tissues and systems and includes relevant aspects of anatomy and histology.  Examples from pathophysiology encourage application of knowledge to predict symptoms of disease and rationale for treatment.  Topics covered in BIOL 30200 include:  composition of the blood and hemostasis, cardiovascular system, respiration (ventilation, gas exchange, gas transport in the blood, regulation of breathing), homeostasis of body fluids and renal function, acid-base balance, digestion and absorption of food, energy balance and nutrition, metabolism and thermoregulation, exercise physiology, and reproduction.

Note:  All lectures are available as podcast files at Boiler cast, and the lecture audio files are also available on the course web site.   A help session is held every Thursday night at 6.30pm.


BIOL 31200 - Great Issues: Genomics & Society - Session Offered: Fall

The course will revolve around genomics, the science and technology involved in determining the sequence of the entire DNA complement in an organism.  Almost everyone has heard of the human genome project, but fewer are aware of the spectacular technical progress in this field and the fact that over 1,000 different organisms have had their genome sequenced.  Until recently, most of these have been microorganisms, but technological and computational progress has made it progressively easier and cheaper to sequence the genomes of higher organisms.  This field may have more of an impact on your future lives than almost any other field of the life sciences-mostly because it touches on all areas of study.

The course will focus on the impact that genomics will have in selected areas.  It will begin with a basic understanding of the science and technology that gave rise to our current capabilities in sequencing and the fact that technology continues to provide greater capacity and cheaper prices.  You will soon see that every field in the College of Science is well represented in the science and technology.  We will then go on to see how genomics influences many topics that affect our daily lives and can possibly provide answers to some critical questions (or at least pose better questions):

  • What is the basis of personalized medicine?
  • What does genomics tell us about the genealogy of mankind?
  • What impact will genomics have on our future food supply and our ability to feed a population of 9 Billion people?
  • What is the human microbiome and what does that mean to me? Similarly, what is the gut microbiome, the mouth microbiome, etc?
  • What impact will genomics have on the development of alternative energy sources, especially biofuels?

In every area, we will discuss the scientific challenges, but also the ethical and societal implications.  In most cases, there is no one right answer, but a series of choices that can be guided by ethical considerations.


BIOL 32800 - Principles of Physiology - Session Offered: Spring

This course is designed to provide students with an introduction to physiology with an emphasis on cellular mechanisms that underlie anatomical and physiological adaptations used by animals to survive in their habitat.  Topics covered will range from cellular respiration to the physical limits of animal performance as we deconstruct and then reconstruct the body to examine how animals can live in extreme environments. Goals for this course are for students to gain a foundation in basic physiological principles, to learn about the integrative nature of the systems of animals, and to appreciate how and why animals have evolved the strategies to help them survive in their unique environments!


BIOL 36700 - Principles of Development - Session Offered: Spring

This course deals with the process by which the genes in the fertilized egg control cell behavior in the embryo and so determine the nature of the animal or plant.  The emphasis is on early development and the laying down of body plan and organ systems in various model systems (Drosophila, nematode, Arabidopsis, zebra fish, mouse, chick, and frog). 


BIOL 36701 - Principles Of Development Lab - Session Offered: Spring

This laboratory will offer students the experience working with different model systems to observe developmental processes, examine key regulatory gene expression, and manipulate gene functions used in different biochemical, molecular and genetic approaches.


BIOL 39300 - Preparing For Your Future in Biology - Session Offered: Spring

The objective of BIOL 393 is to assist students in beginning to prepare for life after Purdue.  Students will learn about interviewing, networking, professional etiquette, job searching, graduate and professional school searching, resumes, personal statements, industrial practices, and how to formulate a career development plan.  You will have the opportunity to interact with amazing alumni from around the country who have utilized their Bachelor of Science degrees in extraordinary ways.  Our goal is for you to be able to construct a polished image on top of your already solid biology background!


BIOL 39500 - Macromolecules - Session Offered: Fall

The course focuses on the comprehensive understanding of macromolecules by providing an introduction to: the types of macromolecules; the biophysical and biochemical properties of macromolecules; how biophysical and biochemical properties are determined; how these physicochemical properties are exploited in various biotechniques. In addition, a brief introduction to methods used to determine the structures of macromolecules and supramolecular assemblies will be presented. Next, the knowledge gained will be exploited to understand the physicochemical basis of structure-function relationships in macromolecules. By providing basic knowledge on macromolecules, the course will prepare students for more advanced and specialized courses.

A problem-driven teaching scheme will be adopted to address the properties of macromolecules such as chemical composition, concentration, solubility, mass, size, density, charge, color, absorption, fluorescence, energy, stability, folding, conformation, force, primary sequence, secondary structure, tertiary structure, macromolecular interaction and formation of complexes. The emphasis will be on how macromolecular properties influence structure function relationships, in addition to biophysical methods to determine these properties. Case studies and historical milestones will be used to illustrate these points.


BIOL 39500 - Special Assignments - Session Offered: Fall Spring

39500 (Juniors). Reading, discussions, written reports, seminar presentations, and field or laboratory work provided for enrichment in special areas of the biological sciences.


BIOL 39500 - Genes + Proteins = Big Data - Session Offered: Spring

In the late 20th century, biology was transformed into a big data science by the development of high throughput methods for DNA sequencing and protein structure analysis.  DNA sequences, protein sequences, genomes, transcriptomes, and proteomes have become ubiquitous in biology, and have permeated every domain of biological knowledge. This course will provide an introduction to using biological data resources and bioinformatics tools especially those related to sequence and structure, and concepts and approaches needed to use and understand biological big data.


BIOL 395M - MacroMolecules - Session Offered: Spring Fall

The course focuses on the structural basis of function of macromolecules in a cell by providing an introduction to:  the biophysical and biochemical properties of macromolecules; the physico-chemical basis of structure-function relationships and how structures of macromolecules and macromolecular assemblies are determined.  Impact of structural biology in enhancing our mechanistic knowledge of broad range of cellular processes will be emphasized through case studies using example of individual proteins to large macromolecular complexes such as viruses.  Hands-on laboratory sessions will provide training in handling bioinformatics and structural data.


BIOL 39600 - Premed Planning Seminar - Session Offered: Fall Spring

 

Recommended for Sophomore or Junior year, this course offers information and advice on application processes, aptitude tests, writing personal statements, professional school interviews, and letters of recommendation.  Students in the course will also formulate an alternative career plan.  The class is open to all pre-health students.


BIOL 39699 - Professional Practice Internship - Session Offered: Summer

To obtain professional practice with qualified employers within industry, government, or small business.  Permission of department required.  Typically offerend Fall, Spring, and Summer.


BIOL 41500 - Introduction to Molecular Biology - Session Offered: Spring

An introduction to modern molecular biology techniques and how they are utilized to address current topics in eukaryotic gene expression. Emphasis will be placed on experimental procedures and model systems, such as site-directed mutagenesis of isolated genes and their subsequent introduction into mammalian cells. Topics will include the molecular control mechanisms associated with RNA transcription and processing, protein-DNA interactions, gene regulation in development and growth control.

 


BIOL 41600 - Viruses and Viral Disease - Session Offered: Spring

The objective of this course is to provide students with an introductory understanding of viruses and their impact on human health.  The course will be divided into two sections.  During the first section, we will discuss the cellular and organismal events that occur following virus infection, including viral entry, replication, modulation of cell biology by viral proteins, the host immune response to infection, evasion of the immune response by viruses, and resulting virus-induced disease.  The emphasis of this first section will be on the general strategies used by viruses to establish and maintain infection in a population.  In the second section, we will discuss in relative detail our current understanding of select important human viruses including poliovirus, dengue virus,  influenza, SV40, and HIV.  The objective of this section will be to understand how the unique aspects of each virus-s biology affect the outcome of infection with these pathogens.  In addition to virus-associated diseases, we will discuss potential ways that viruses may provide symbiotic benefits to their hosts and thereby shape the course of human evolution.  Throughout the course, we will emphasize societal and political aspects of virology and virus-derived technologies, including vaccine development, the use of viruses as gene therapy vectors, and the threat of viral bioterror or bio-error.


BIOL 42000 - Eukaryotic Cell Biology - Session Offered: Fall.

The course covers specific topics on the structure and function of eukaryotic cells. The first half of the course includes an analysis of the function of membrane bound organelles (especially the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, and lysosomes). Protein targeting to these organelles is examined in detail. The second half covers muscle and actin-based non-muscle motility, cilia and other microtubule-based movements, and ends with the regulation of the cell cycle and growth control. The course emphasizes the experimental basis for our understanding of organelle function and regulatory events.


BIOL 42000 - Eukaryotic Cell Biology - Session Offered: Summer

The course covers specific topics on the structure and function of eukaryotic cells. The first half of the course includes an analysis of the function of membrane bound organelles (especially the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, and lysosomes). Protein targeting to these organelles is examined in detail. The second half covers muscle and actin-based non-muscle motility, cilia and other microtubule-based movements, and ends with the regulation of the cell cycle and growth control. The course emphasizes the experimental basis for our understanding of organelle function and regulatory events.


BIOL 43200 - Reproductive Physiology Next offered Fall 2018 - Session Offered: Fall

This is an alternating year course, next offered Fall 2014.

This course provides an integrated approach to examining how tissues interact to regulate reproductive processes. Each section begins by describing fundamental commonalities of a reproductive event in a variety of species. This is followed by an emphasis on the difference in the details of that event among species. Some of the topics to be covered include ovarian and testicular function, puberty and the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, fertilization, establishment of the placenta, maternal support of pregnancy, parturition, and lactation.


BIOL 43600 - Neurobiology - Session Offered: Summer

This course covers key aspects in molecular, cellular, and developmental neurobiology. Topics include: Cell biology of neurons and glial cells, electrophysiological properties of neurons, electrical and chemical signaling between neurons, synaptic integration and plasticity, development and regeneration of the nervous system, nervous system diseases. Up-to-date research findings and techniques will be included. A basic knowledge of cell biology and protein structure and function is strongly recommended.


BIOL 43800 - General Microbiology - Session Offered: Fall

Basic concepts specific to microbial structure/function, nutrition, regulation and growth constitute the first section of the course. The next section involves discussions of microbial diversity centering on mechanisms for generating energy and synthesizing essential cell components. The importance of these mechanisms to environmental cycling of key elements is included. The last section deals with the interaction of bacteria with their environments and includes the role of plasmids and viruses, interactions with plants and pathogenicity.


BIOL 43900 - Laboratory in General Microbiology - Session Offered: Fall

 

Students will learn how to safely manipulate microorganisms without contamination, how to grow bacteria from laboratory or environmental samples and measure their growth, and how to differentiate species based on the physiological properties of their cells.  They will also learn how to design experiments and interpret experimental results.  Experiments investigate topics including media and plating techniques, bacterial growth measurements, microbial diagnostics, enzyme kinetics and cell physiology.  The course concludes with a short (5 lab periods) independent design project, which students plan and carry out based on literature research. 


BIOL 44100 - Biology Senior Seminar in Genetics - Session Offered: Spring

Students are required to give a half hour talk based on journal articles chosen from a list on current developments in eukaryotic and microbial genetics or a related topic of the students choice.


BIOL 44100 - Biology Senior Seminar in Genetics - Session Offered: Fall

Students are required to give a half hour talk based on journal articles chosen from a list on current developments in eukaryotic and microbial genetics or a related topic of the students choice.


BIOL 44201 - Introductory Module: Protein Expression - Session Offered: Spring Fall

This is a project-oriented course designed to give the student exposure to laboratory research through a series of five-week modules. During this five-week introductory module, the students will learn the basics of expression, isolation, and characterization of recombinant proteins in E. coli using SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. In the first half of the course, students work initially with one recombinant DNA construct and then are given a second construct to use to identify the protein expressed. *Note: additional hours as needed for particular experiments.


BIOL 44202 - Animal Physiology - Session Offered: Fall

This five-week module will give students exposure to laboratory research through a series of five]week modules. This module involves measurements of respiratory, cardiovascular, neural and renal function. When appropriate measurements are made in both rats and humans.


BIOL 44202 - Animal Physiology - Session Offered: Fall

This is a project-oriented course designed to give the student exposure to laboratory reserach through a series of five-week modules. This module involves measurements of respiratory, cardiovascular, neural and renal function. When appropriate measurements are make in both rats and humans.


BIOL 44205 - Introduction to LabView - Session Offered: Fall

Biological Science students only except by permission of instructor. Course Content: Introduction to Programming in LabVIEW. Use of LabVIEW in data acquisition, simulation, and control.


BIOL 44205 - Intro to LabView - Session Offered: Spring

This is an introductory course for LabVIEW programming. During this five�]week module students will learn proper data acquisition techniques and be introduced to the fundamentals of the LabVIEW graphical programming environment. Through LabVIEW, students will learn the tools to develop programs capable of acquiring, processing, analyzing, saving and displaying data for engineering and scientific applications.


BIOL 44207 - Exploration of Protein Structure - Session Offered: Fall

This module is a hands-on exploration of the principles of enzyme structure. Students will use computers to retrieve and inspect protein structures from publicly available databases. Through the performance and analysis of sequence and structural alignments, students will explore the relationship between primary, secondary and tertiary structures and the final active form of a protein.


BIOL 44207 - Exploration of Protein Structure - Session Offered: Spring

This module is a hands-on exploration of the principles of enzyme structure. Students will use computers to retrieve and inspect protein structures from publicly available databases. Through the performance and analysis of sequence and structural alignments, students will explore the relationship between primary, secondary and tertiary structures and the final active form of a protein.


BIOL 44211 - Laboratory in Anatomy and Physiology - Session Offered: Spring

This module will study various organs, and also discuss diseases associated with it.  The heart, brain, kidney, stomach, liver etc. will be studied in detail using histology, dissection, and instrumentation. Emphasis will be placed on problem solving using various case studies. The students will be required to give a presentation.


BIOL 44212 - Microscopy and Cell Biology - Session Offered: Fall

 

In this five-week module, students will learn how to prepare specimens for viewing by fluorescence microscopy.  Specimens include mammalian tissue culture cells and zebrafish embryos.  The emphasis will be on the staining of the cytoskeleton in these preparations, utilizing antibodies and fluorescent probes.  The specimens will be viewed by wide-field and confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscopy.  Images will be acquired, processed and analyzed by modern computational methods.  Students will learn the basics of cell culture, immunocytochemistry, fluorescence microscopy, digital image processing and data analysis. At the end of the course, students prepare a PowerPoint presentation of their images and data.


BIOL 44400 - Human Genetics - Session Offered: Fall

An intermediate level survey course of human genetics with emphasis on the impact of molecular information. We focus not only on the fundamentals of genome organization, function and variation in molecular terms, but extend our understanding to molecular interpretations of patterns of inheritance, genetic disease, diagnosis and treatment.


BIOL 44600 - Molecular Bacterial Pathogenesis - Session Offered: Spring

This course will focus on the interface of classical cell biology and microbiology, with emphasis on the exploitation of mammalian host cell by medically relevant pathogens, such as Yersinia, Salmonella, and Listeria. This course will cover the molecular mechanisms of infectious diseases. It will introduce modern cellular microbial strategies for studying the complex interaction between pathogens and their host cells. Topics and readings will be prepared from the most current literature.


BIOL 47500 ( 49500) - Senior Seminar in Neurobiology - Session Offered: Spring

Students are required to give a 30-45 minute talk based on primary journal articles chosen from a list on current developments in neuroscience or a related topic of the students choice.  They are also required to read and contribute questions about each paper, and to provide anonymous feedback to each presenter.


BIOL 47800 - Introduction to Bioinformatics - Session Offered: Fall

The unveiling of the map of the human genome signals the dawning of the post-genomics age. New technologies and information are rapidly converging to change the way we do science and the way science will impact our culture. Some of these developments include the sequencing of the chromosomal content in an entire organism, high through-put strategies to identify genes whose patterns of expression change in response to the needs of the organism, and advances in the visualization of the structures of the proteins that are encoded by the genes.The course will focus on genome analysis and microarray strategies, and will include a presentation of the context of bioinformatics, the methods of data acquisition, the strategies by which the data are analyzed including the use of appropriate analysis software, and the ways the data are interpreted.


BIOL 48100 - Eukaryotic Genetics - Session Offered: Spring

A study of the processes of genetic continuity in eukaryotes and of the roles of genes in development.  Principles of gene transmission, mutation, organization, and regulation will be discussed using examples from animals, plants, and fungi.  Emphasis will be placed on the power of the molecular and classical genetic approaches to illuminate complex biological phenomena.


BIOL 48300 - Environmental & Conservation Biology - Session Offered: Spring

 

Intended for mid-level undergraduate biology majors, this course will provide an introduction to the application of ecological principles to environmental issues.  It will introduce fundamental ecological theory and empiricism, and demonstrate their application to practical issues concerning effects of environmental change, at each level of organization from the individual to the ecosystem.  Whole-biosphere issues, such as global warming and global patterns of productivity, will form the umbrella issues for more focused integrations of ecological knowledge centered at the population level to understand the viability of small and threatened populations. The global extinction crisis and the geography of biodiversity will be covered, and the course will focus on particular case studies of threatened ecosystems and analyses of the genetic and demographic stability of populations.  The history and prognosis for the coexistence of human civilizations with the rest of natural ecosystems form the background for applying ecology to policy.


BIOL 49400 - Biology Research - Session Offered: Fall Spring Summer

BIOL 49400- For Juniors and Seniors. Supervised individual research. Project must be approved by the Honors Committee, Department of Biological Sciences. Honors Research program students should register for BIOL 49900.

Please Note:  A biology major can earn research credit under BIOL 49400 for working with faculty in Biological Sciences or any other department on campus.  This research must be approved on an Application for Credit in Undergraduate Research form, available in the Biology Counseling Office.

Any other major can earn credit under BIOL 49400 for working with faculty in Biological Sciences ONLY.  This research must be approved on an Application for Credit in Undergraduate Research form, available in the Biology Counseling Office.  If the student wants to earn research credit with other faculty, the student should seek credit under the course/number of the faculty members home department.


BIOL 49500 - Human Evolution from a Genomic Perspective (COURSE CANCELLED) - Session Offered:

A course on human origins and evolution.  There will be a particular emphasis on genetic evidence, for example, where and how modern humans spread or the properties of human proteins in relation to mating practices.  A key topic will be tracking down genes involved in factors such as the increase in human intelligence.


BIOL 49500 - Special Assignments - Session Offered: Fall Spring Summer

49500 (Seniors). Reading, discussions, written reports, seminar presentations, and field or laboratory work provided for enrichment in special areas of the biological sciences.


BIOL 49500 - Biological & Structural Aspects of Drug Design & Action - Session Offered: Spring

This course will provide an overview of the modern day drug discovery pipeline process and an in-depth look at the basic biology, structure, and mechanisms-of actions behind currently marketed therapeutics.  The course will start with a historical account of the discovery of natural product drugs such as aspirin and penicillin and will then venture into the modern day era of the drug discovery pipeline with an emphasis on the principles of target selection, assay development, high-throughput screening and structure-based drug design.  We will explore different classes of antibiotics, antiviral, and anti-cancer drugs and their targets including small molecule drugs and modern biologics-based drugs.


BIOL 49500 - Senior Seminar In Plant Ecology/NOT OFFERED FALL 2015 - Session Offered: Fall

In this course, students will critically evaluate longstanding and developing principles in plant ecology by reading and discussing highly influential scientific papers.  Students will be responsible for presenting papers to the class and contributing to constructive discussions on diverse topics in plant ecology, including competition, natural enemies, pollination, dispersal, adaptation, evolution, and conservation biology. Emphasis will be placed on identifying hypotheses, understanding how experiments are designed to test hypotheses, and learning how data can be analyzed and displayed to evaluate hypotheses.


BIOL 49700 - Biology Honors Seminar - Session Offered: Spring

Required of all Juniors and Seniors in the Honors Research Program.  Optional for other honors research students.  Relevant research seminars and discussions.  Informal presentation and discussion of your ongoing research.  Participation in the Undergraduate Research Day.


BIOL 49800 - Biology Teaching - Session Offered: Fall

Supervised teaching experience for Juniors and Seniors. Must have approval of course instructor in advance.


BIOL 49800 - Biology Teaching - Session Offered: Spring

Supervised teaching experience for Juniors and Seniors.  Must have approval of course instructor in advance. 


BIOL 49900 - Biology Honors Thesis Research - Session Offered: Fall Spring Summer

Research under the guidance of a scientist. Department approval is required.


BIOL 51600 - Molecular Biology of Cancer - Session Offered: Spring

The course begins with a review of the current research techniques used to examine the biology of eukaryotic cells and then covers seminal discoveries in the areas of cell cycle regulation, DNA, and RNA tumor virology, growth factors and their receptors, signal transduction and oncogenes.  For all topics, an emphasis is placed on the molecular mechanisms governing growth regulation and how alterations in these mechanisms can give rise to disease states such as cancer.  Reading of both historical and current primary literature is required as a supplement to a course textbook.

This course is designed primarily for students interested in professional careers in which a knowledge of molecular biology, as it pertains to growth control and human cancer, would be useful.  There are three scheduled guest lecturers, each of whom presents a seminar on a current cancer research topic in their laboratory.


BIOL 51700 - Molecular Biology: Proteins - Session Offered: Spring

The principles of protein three-dimensional structure are examined.  The course is divided into "theoretical" and "application" sections.  In the theoretical section, general principles of protein structure are discussed in detail.  In the application section, the structural principles learned in the first part of the course are applied to particular protein systems.  Topics covered in the theoretical section of the course include:  covalent structure of proteins; protein secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure; physical forces influencing protein structure; protein surface areas and internal packing; internal motion in protein molecules; protein folding; comparison of protein primary and prediction of tertiary structures; and structural features of integral membrane proteins.

Students use computer graphics to visualize the principles of protein architecture that are described in class, to take quizzes, and to do homework assignments.


BIOL 52900 - Bacterial Physiology - Session Offered: Spring

 

A detailed consideration of several of the following topics from the primary literature:  function and regulation of central metabolic routes; mechanisms controlling intercellular signaling and differentiation; transport and secretion; specialized metabolism, including photosynthesis, methanogenesis and microbial alternative energy production; evolution and interaction of regulatory systems. 

The course emphasizes metabolic features that are common for all bacteria or for large groups of organisms and is intended for students in many different departments who need an understanding of bacterial physiology.  A major section of the course revolves around genomics and high-throughput techniques such as transcriptomics, proteomics and next-generation sequencing.  As part of this section, students are taught how to use free, web-based computer software that is available for finding and analyzing such information.


BIOL 53300 - Medical Microbiology - Session Offered: Fall

This is an advanced undergraduate course on bacterial pathogenesis. Topics will include basic principles of the infectious process, infectious agents, mechanisms of pathogenesis, technologies for studying bacterial pathogens, and genomics of human bacterial pathogens. Reading assignments will be from course textbook and scientific literature.



BIOL 53700 - Immunobiology - Session Offered: Spring

BIOL 53700 is an introductory course intended for graduate and senior undergraduate students interested to learn why we do not die from a common cold and why you cannot always give a kidney to your best friend.  This course will define the role of the immune system in fighting infection, its potential to prevent cancer, and describe how through the use vaccines people can avoid these illnesses.  We will also discuss the other side of the immune system, the one causing problems, such as autoimmunity, allergy, and transplant rejection.


BIOL 53800 - Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Neurobiology - Session Offered: Spring

From Alzheimers and Parkinsons disease to stroke and neurotrauma, neurological disease and injury present some of the most debilitating and intractable medical problems.  Recent progress in molecular neuroscience has begun to reveal the mechanisms of several human neurological diseases and to suggest potential therapies.  Biology 538 explores topics in basic cellular, molecular and developmental neuroscience and their connections to neural disease and injury.  Readings are derived from the current literature.


BIOL 54100 - Molecular Genetics of Bacteria - Session Offered: Fall

Advanced bacterial genetics, with emphasis on the use of genetics as a powerful and creative intellectual activity that enables us to discover biological functions and to construct new organisms by the manipulation of DNA. Major topics include mutations, genetic selections, recombination, regulatory mechanisms, genomic evolution.


BIOL 54200 - Lab in Neurophysiology - Session Offered: Fall

In this five-week module, students will study laboratory methods in electrophysiology by focusing on membrane potential, action potentials and their propagation, and neuromuscular transmission. Students will be introduced to the theory and use of amplifiers, electrodes, data collection and analysis.


BIOL 54900 - Microbial Ecology - Session Offered: Spring

This is an alternating year course, next offered Spring 2016.

The course will cover a small number of topics in which there has been extensive recent research and emphasizes the physiological responses made by microorganisms to their environment.  The topics include the adaptations made to nutrient limitation and starvation, microbial utilization of xenobiotic compounds, techniques to measure microbial activities in natural environments, metabolic interactions between microbes and other organisms, and the interdependence of microbial, physical, and chemical factors in aquatic ecosystems. Bacteriophage and their role in the environment will also be addressed.  Reading assignments will be made from review articles and primary research articles relevant to the topics.  There will be several class projects that will use molecular methods for evaluating bacterial community structure and the use of bioluminescent organisms for in situ monitoring of microbial physiology and nutrient bioavailability.


BIOL 55001 - Eukaryotic Molecular Biology - Session Offered: Fall

Eukaryotic Molecular Biology will be a general survey course intended for advanced undergrads and beginning grad students.  The course will draw upon examples from the plant, animal, and fungal kingdoms, and will familiarize students with the basic principles of molecular biology analyses as they apply to eukaryotic organisms.  By the end of the course students should have knowledge of these molecular processes and should be able to design and analyze experiments dealing with these topics.  This is not a first course in molecular biology.  Recommended BIOL 41500


BIOL 55900 - Endocrinology - Session Offered: Fall

This course is an investigation into the role of hormones in regulating physiological and biochemical processes. An experimental approach to a variety of topics is emphasized. Topics include: hormone structure and mechanism of action and the role of hormones in regulating homeostasis, growth, development, and reproduction.


BIOL 56200 - Neural Systems - Session Offered: Spring

Overview of the structure and function of neural systems including those involved with motor, somatosensory, visual, auditory, learning, memory, and higher cortical processes. Molecular and cellular aspects of neural function are integrated with discussion of relevant neuroanatomy. Background in cell biology, psychobiology, physiology or anatomy is recommended. Typically offered Spring.
3.000 Credit hours


BIOL 56310 - Protein Bioinformatics - Session Offered: Spring

Accumulation of biological data, such as genome sequences, protein structures and sequences, metabolic pathways, opened up a new way of research in biology - bioinformatics.  Through the survey of the various active research topics in bioinformatics, in this course we will learn bioinformatics databases, tools, and algorithms behind these tools.  Special emphasis is placed on protein sequence and structure analyses.  Covered topics will include methods for protein sequence comparison, protein structure comparison, protein structure prediction/modeling, protein docking prediction, protein function prediction, and protein network analysis.


BIOL 58010 - Teaching Evolution: Online Course for Teachers- Next offered Fall 2019 - Session Offered: Fall

 

This is an alternating year course, next offered Fall 2019

This online course will help students deepen their understanding of evolutionary concepts, develop instructional strategies, and address obstacles in the teaching of evolution. Students who successfully complete this course will know: (1) The nature of scientific processes, (2) The value and limitations of scientific process, (3) The scientific use of terms such as fact, law, theory, and hypothesis,   (4) How multiple forms of evidence are used to test theories, (5) Applications of scientific processes in different situations, and (6) Understand how and why evolution is a cornerstone of biology. The students will (a) Explore teaching methodologies, and address obstacles to teaching evolution (b) Examine how student misconceptions about evolution can be raised and addressed, (c) Understand how assessment strategies are integrated into inquiry-based science lessons, (d) Examine how questions facilitate diverse student thinking about and discussion of science, (e) Identify what it takes to develop a respectful, productive science learning environment, and (f) Understand legal and professional support for teaching evolution.  Four writing assignments, weekly online discussions, weekly quizzes, frequent online peer reviews, collaborative design of a teaching unit, and a final exam are required.


BIOL 58210 - Ecological Statistics - Session Offered: Fall

This course covers topics that are useful for successfully designing and analyzing statistically observational and experimental studies in ecology, animal behavior, evolutionary biology, forestry, wildlife sciences, fisheries, etc. Some topics are: differences between hypotheses and predictions, design of an ecological study, general linear models, assumptions, different types of designs (factorial, nested, repeated measures, blocks, split-plots, etc.), fitting models to data, etc. The course will focus on the conceptual understanding of these topics (e.g., interpreting the results of statistical tests) and practice with statistical programs and real datasets.


BIOL 58705 - Animal Communication - Session Offered: Fall

This is an alternating year course, next offered Fall 2014.

  BIOL 58705 will be a broad-scaled analysis of animal communication. Topics will include the physics of sound- and light-signal production, propagation and reception of signals, the use of communication as a means of information transfer, and the evolution of signaling systems. Comments:  Some mathematical principles will be covered (e.g. in the evolution of signals), so some background in mathematics (e.g. calculus or algebra and introductory physics) would be helpful.


BIOL 59200 - Evolution of Behavior Next offered Spring 2019 - Session Offered: Spring

 This is an alternating year course, next offered Spring 2019

An investigation of behaviors as adaptations: specializations of sensory and motor mechanisms involved in behavior; animal communication systems; behavioral ecology; patterns of social behavior as solutions to ecological problems, such as predator avoidance and resource exploitation. Emphasis will be on theoretical principles; examples will be broadly comparative, ranging from microorganisms to mammals. 


BIOL 59500 - Methods & Measurements in Physical Biochemistry - Session Offered: Fall

This course is intended as an introduction to physical methods in biochemistry and aims to provide an understanding of the techniques of spectroscopy, diffraction, magnetic resonance and other physical methods.  The purpose of the course is to expose students to the application of these techniques to specific problems in biological systems, the interpretation of the resulting data, and analysis of the strengths and limitations of each technique.  Examples from research articles will be discussed that illustrate how these methods are used in modern biochemistry.  Given the scope of the course, each topic will be treated only at the level of an introduction to the method.  Students interested in studying these techniques in-depth could then take more specialized or advanced courses such as BIOL 51100/51400/61100 (x-ray crystallography), CHEM 61500/61600 (Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy), BIOL 59500 (Electron microscopy and 3D reconstruction), or other special topics courses to be offered by the faculty.  Analysis of techniques used in physical measurements of biological systems.  Application of these techniques to studies of structure and dynamic behavior of biological macromolecules, composition and orientation of structural elements and cofactors, ligand binding and conformational change in biological interactions and detailed probes of local changes in structure, solvent accessibility and specific bonds formed in biological reactions. Specific techniques to be covered are:  UV/Vis spectroscopy, circular dichroism, IR and Raman spectroscopy, fluorescence and single particle methods, analytical ultracentrifugation, surface plasmon resonance, scattering, x-ray crystallography, NMR and ESR spectroscopy, electron microscopy, mass spectroscopy.   Comments:  Although designed for students in biochemistry and biophysics, this course is also appropriate for upper level undergraduates and graduate students in the areas of chemistry and physics who are interested in the applications of physical methods to biological problems.


INTRODUCTION

Social behavior is one of the great evolutionary innovations of life, permitting its adopters to realize novel organizational complexities and providing competitive advantages and fitness benefits to groups working together; these interactions have been fundamental to the origins of multicellularity (1), developmental specialization (2), and culture and technology (3). Sociality affects all aspects of an organism’s biology, and there is accumulating evidence that this includes host-associated gut microbial communities as well. The reliability of transmission brought about by social contact potentially allows for stable, long-term microbial assemblages to establish and for host-adapted symbiont lineages to arise (410). Nonetheless, how gut microbiomes evolve—through changes in community composition, diversity, and functional capabilities—is not well understood, and the forces guiding these evolutionary trajectories remain unclear.

The eusocial Western honey bee (Apis mellifera) harbors a distinctive gut microbiota, composed of <10 bacterial phylotypes that are transmitted through contact between nestmates (1113). These bacteria are extremely specialized, usually found in bee guts or the hive environment but not elsewhere (14, 15). However, A. mellifera is but one of more than 775 species of social corbiculate bees—a clade dating to about 80 million years and containing other ecologically important pollinators such as the Eastern honey bee (Apis cerana), bumble bees (tribe Bombini, all in genus Bombus), and stingless bees (tribe Meliponini) (16). Previous studies found that diverse bumble bee species harbor gut associates related to those of A. mellifera (14, 1721), suggesting that an evolutionarily ancient microbiota is conserved among the eusocial corbiculates.

Here, we compare the gut microbiomes of honey bees (tribe Apini, all in genus Apis), bumble bees, and stingless bees—the three major groups of eusocial corbiculates—using samples collected from multiple locations on four continents (Fig. 1). This approach enables us to (i) define the normal gut microbiota of corbiculate bees, (ii) determine whether gut community structure is influenced by phylogenetic relatedness and geographic co-occurrence, (iii) infer shifts in the microbiota over host evolutionary history, and (iv) evaluate how host ecology shapes microbiome composition and diversity. We also use in vivo experiments with cultured bacterial strains to evaluate potential barriers to cross-host gut symbiont exchange. Our results show that, as with humans and several other social animals, the eusocial corbiculate bees have highly characteristic gut communities whose origins and maintenance may be facilitated by their social nature.

RESULTS

We examined the gut microbiota of 472 individual adult bees representing 25 species of corbiculates and two outgroup bee species (data file S1). The V4 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene was amplified and sequenced on the Illumina MiSeq platform, generating, on average, 26,672 reads per sample (range, 2313 to 80,286).

Corbiculate bees harbor a small, recurring set of bacterial phylotypes

Gut communities were profiled at a depth of 1900 reads per sample. Despite the antiquity of this clade and the span of geographic regions, habitats, and nesting behaviors represented, the eusocial corbiculate bees have markedly low gut community diversity at 97% operational taxonomic unit clustering (OTU97), with only 199 OTUs in total. Individual specimens have from 1 to 22 OTUs97 [comparatively, humans have 500 to 1000 OTUs97 (22) and termites have ~102 to >103, depending on species (7)]. The same phylotypes [phylogenetically related OTUs, according to Martinson et al. (14)] are found across diverse corbiculate species: For instance, OTUs corresponding to the genus Snodgrassella were detected in all Apis and Bombus species surveyed, as well as in 9 of 13 stingless bee species. Similarly, Gilliamella, Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus Firm-4, and Lactobacillus Firm-5 are prevalent across the three major corbiculate clades, suggesting that these taxa comprise the core of the corbiculate gut microbiome (Fig. 2 and data file S2). Some phylotypes appear lineage-specific: Bartonella apis (23) and Frischella (24) in honey bees, Bombiscardovia (25) and Schmidhempelia (26) in bumble bees, and an Acetobacter-like OTU in the stingless bees. These bacteria are largely absent in our outgroups, the solitary Centris atripes (an oil-collecting bee in a tribe that is sister to the corbiculates) and the miner bee Anthophora abrupta, and were also not found in other noncorbiculate bees and wasps (14).

Gut communities differ among host species

Although low diversity and the presence of recurring phylotypes appear to be common characteristics uniting corbiculate gut communities, the microbiome of each host species remains distinctive when compared against that of other species. Principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) and nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) analysis of dissimilarities (Fig. 3A and figs. S2A and S3) and unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean clustering (UPGMA) (fig. S4) show clear separation between the three eusocial corbiculate tribes, with the greatest compositional variation within the Meliponini (PERMDISP, P < 0.001). Gut communities assorted according to host, rather than geography. For example, community makeup was not significantly different in A. cerana sampled across five countries (Fig. 3B). Sympatric bee species maintain distinct gut communities (Fig. 3C and fig. S2B), despite having ample opportunities to swap microbes at shared floral resources, during hive robbing, or in construction of interspecific colonies (2729). Linear modeling corroborates the greater weight of host identity over sampling location in predicting gut community composition (fig. S5; likelihood ratio test, P < 1 × 10−15). These results do not rule out the existence of geographic factors but suggest that host identity is a much more important determinant of microbiome composition.

In East Asia, A. cerana has historically been the most economically important bee species, but introductions of A. mellifera, which produces greater honey yields, have recently become common (3032). These introductions, combined with the close genetic relationship and lifestyle of the two species, have facilitated a disastrous transmission of pathogenic microbes in both directions, with various mites, viruses, and microsporidian parasites devastating naïve hosts (33). In 2007, A. cerana was inadvertently introduced to Australia at Cairns, Queensland, sparking concern for the existing apicultural industry based around A. mellifera (34). Whether the normal gut microbiotas of the two species have also become homogenized was unknown. We analyzed samples of co-occurring A. mellifera and A. cerana in four countries in 2014, as well as of historical A. cerana samples from Cairns, and found the gut communities of A. mellifera and A. cerana to be clearly distinguishable (Fig. 3C and fig. S2). This held true across different locations, implying the existence of persistent barriers to gut symbiont exchange between these closely related species.

Gut community evolution is dynamic

In terms of both phylotype prevalence and relative abundance, there is considerable variation in gut communities among bee species (Fig. 2). To understand why different bees harbor different microbiomes, we examined how gut community composition varies with degree of host relatedness. A strong correlation between pairwise community dissimilarities and host divergence was found, with closely related species having more similar microbiomes (Fig. 4A; Mantel test, r = 0.782, P < 0.0001). This correlation persisted when controlling for geography (partial Mantel test, r = 0.753, P < 0.0001), whereas the effect of geography when controlling for host relatedness was minimal (partial Mantel test, r = 0.046, P = 0.0079).

These results suggest that host phylogeny is key to explaining gut community composition and that social corbiculate microbiomes reflect descent with modification rather than arbitrary assembly within each host. That no single bacterial phylotype is present across all bee species (Fig. 2) is indicative of bacterial lineage gain/loss being a major mechanism by which the bee microbiome evolves. Assuming that gut communities are highly heritable, shifts in the gut microbiome during the evolution of their hosts can be estimated by mapping the community compositions of extant bees onto a corbiculate phylogeny (Fig. 4B and fig. S6). This parsimony-based inference shows that the five core phylotypes were likely present at the base of the corbiculates. Every sampled corbiculate species, save Austroplebeia australis, harbors at least one of the core bacteria at >1% abundance, and each core phylotype is found within members of Apis, Bombus, and the Meliponini (Fig. 2).

In addition to the core members, other bacteria are often found in the corbiculate gut community. Some of these may be environmental in origin, acquired during foraging or from hive materials. However, others appear to be distinctively associated with particular hosts. One of the main differentiators between the A. mellifera and A. cerana microbiomes is the consistent presence of Apibacter in A. cerana (in 84.3% of individuals, compared to 4.8% in A. mellifera). Apibacter is also characteristic of the Apis dorsata microbiome (85.2% prevalence), albeit with a different strain from that found in A. cerana (data file S3) (35).

Gains of microbiota lineages are also reflected in broader host clades. For instance, we detected B. apis in all sampled Apis species, but not in Bombus or the Meliponini, suggesting that B. apis is more host-restricted than Apibacter, which is found in bees across all three clades. The gains of new microbial lineages have been tempered by apparent losses. Of the 25 sampled corbiculate species, 13 lacked detectable levels of at least one core phylotype. The extremely low abundance of Snodgrassella in A. dorsata (0.3%) may be an example of a loss in progress, whereby a previously abundant gut symbiont is gradually eliminated. It is also possible that OTU prevalence fluctuates with host age or season (36), for which further sampling is needed to ascertain.

Strain-level diversity is largely host-specific

Clustering highly conserved, slow-evolving genes such as 16S rRNA at 97% identity obscures strain-level variation. Strain-level variants can be a source of functional diversity (37, 38) and can represent specialists adapted to particular hosts or environments. For example, even though Snodgrassella strains occur in both Apis and Bombus, and are >98% similar in their 16S rRNA sequences, strains in one host are divergent from those in another and contain different genomic repertoires (39).

Clustering at 99.5% identity (OTU99.5) resolves a number of distinct strains within each phylotype, mainly assorting with host species (Fig. 5 and data file S3). The presence of host-specific strains supports the hypothesis of a coevolved, vertically transmitted gut microbiota (18) and weighs against the idea that the microbiota passes freely between bee species.

The diversity of Lactobacillus Firm-5, one of the most ubiquitous and abundant members of the corbiculate microbiota, was examined at greater resolution by phylogenetic analysis of the protein-coding genes rpoA and tuf, cloned from individual bees (Fig. 5 and figs. S7 to S9). We found that the diversity represented by previously characterized Firm-5 from A. mellifera (4043) encompasses but a small portion of this bacterial clade (Fig. 5) and that different host species tend to carry unique Firm-5 lineages. Closely related hosts generally harbor closely related strains, suggesting that some degree of host-microbe codiversification helps drive strain-level evolution (fig. S10). Firm-5 strains also resolve into clusters that reflect higher host-level taxonomies (for example, strains from bumble bees, honey bees, and the Old World and New World stingless bees group separately), albeit with lower support at deeper nodes.

In A. mellifera and A. cerana, cloned Firm-5 sequences from a single sample fall across a range of phylogenetic positions, indicating cohabitation of multiple Firm-5 strains within individual bees (fig. S9). This was true even in A. cerana from Cairns, Australia, a highly inbred population founded by a single colony (34). There was also no clustering discernible along intraspecies morphoclusters, which potentially represent different host genetic backgrounds (for example, A. cerana in Cairns versus that in Seoul) (44). Hence, the entire diversity of a host-specific phylotype might be largely represented within a single bee colony regardless of geography, at least for A. mellifera and A. cerana.

Despite the high degree of observed host specificity, the phylogenetic association between Firm-5 and host bees is not perfectly congruent (Fig. 5 and fig. S10), ruling out strict host-microbe codivergence. Gut microbiome evolution is complex and dynamic: Entire phylotypes can be gained and lost from host lineages, and it is likely that host switching of strains occurs at an appreciable frequency.

Generalist strains can colonize multiple hosts

Although host specificity appears to be prevalent, generalist strains can also be found in the corbiculate microbiota. A tuf gene phylogeny of Snodgrassella reveals clades in which closely related strains associate with multiple host species (Fig. 6A). For example, similar strains are shared between the Asian honey bees A. cerana, Apis andreniformis, and Apis florea. Other recurring, related strains are found across some bumble bee clades (18). These apparent generalists are useful for probing the barriers to gut microbe exchange and the phenomenon of host specialization.

A. mellifera does not naturally harbor Snodgrassella strains from A. cerana, A. andreniformis, or A. florea (Fig. 5). To determine whether this segregation among hosts reflects the inability of strains to colonize other host species, we performed experiments using monoinoculations with cultured strains in germ-free workers of A. mellifera. The results show that cross-host microbe transfer is possible between Apis spp. (Fig. 6B). In contrast, there was strict host fidelity in transfers between Apis and Bombus (Fig. 6B), as previously observed (39). Hence, the barrier to host switching is not due to direct physiological incompatibility, at least between closely related hosts.

Despite the innate colonization potential of “foreign” strains, their absence in field-collected A. mellifera could also be explained if “native” strains are consistently superior competitors. We examined this hypothesis with co-inoculation trials (Fig. 6C). Surprisingly, all three foreign strains we tested were able to simultaneously colonize A. mellifera together with a native strain, albeit with different efficacies. Typically, only one strain became dominant in any single gut, but the native A. mellifera–derived strain was not always the most competitive. Varying the inoculation ratios by 10-fold produced shifts in final ratios of only ~20% (Fig. 6C), suggesting that competitiveness is a robust trait not easily perturbed.

The apparent credibility of generalist lifestyles complicates our understanding of how bee species maintain distinctive gut communities. Other barriers may be important in enforcing host fidelity. Possibly, for instance, foreign strains may have greater difficulty invading the more complex, heterogeneous gut communities found under natural conditions. The absence of generalist strains colonizing distantly related hosts could also be due to differences in host physiologies that are too great to be bridged. Additionally, host behaviors or biogeographic distribution likely helps circumscribe the microbiota exchange opportunities between bee species.

Host ecology drives microbiota diversity

Causal factors behind large-scale trends in community diversity are often difficult to pinpoint. Our results suggest that the corbiculate gut provides a superb habitat for a distinctive set of bacterial colonists, yet there is substantial variation in gut community composition between bee species and between individuals within species. For instance, we find that gut communities in bumble bees are, on average, less diverse than those in honey bees (Fig. 7A, nested ANOVA OTUs97, P = 0.0420; fig. S11, Shannon’s H OTU99.5, P = 0.0045). Bumble bee gut communities are also more erratic than those of honey bees (Fig. 7B), with individuals harboring communities ranging from having relatively even abundances to being dominated by a few phylotypes. For the stingless bees, there was significant variation between species in both diversity and evenness.

The species-area relationship (45) postulates that larger habitats harbor greater diversity. We examined total community size (absolute bacterial abundance) as a function of host size (length of average worker bee) and uncover a positive log-linear relationship in the corbiculates, whereby larger bees host more bacteria (Fig. 7C). Bacterial diversity itself does not correlate with either community size or bee size when comparing across all corbiculates (Fig. 7D and fig. S12; F test, P > 0.05). However, weak positive correlations are found when the corbiculate clades are considered separately (Fig. 7D and fig. S12; OLS) and when corrected for phylogeny (Fig. 7D and fig. S12; PGLS).

The peculiarities of host ecology may help explain these diversity patterns. Unlike honey bees and stingless bees, which grow by colony fission (46, 47), bumble bee colonies are founded by single queens (48), imposing potential bottlenecks on microbiota diversity. For yet unknown reasons, the Bombus gut microbiota also appears more prone to perturbation and displacement by environmental bacteria (19, 20, 49), and despite their larger body size, bumble bees often form colonies that are orders of magnitude smaller than those of Apis or the Meliponini (101 to 102 versus 103 to 104 individuals). Hence, the effective “habitat size” for Bombus-associated microbes may be considerably smaller than that for Apis or the Meliponini, leading to lower overall gut community diversity (Fig. 7A and fig. S11).

To test this hypothesis, consider that an analog to habitat size in such interconnected social systems may not simply be an individual bee but also the colony or the local host population among which microbes are shared among conspecific individuals. If this is true, bee species with larger colony sizes would be expected to have greater gut microbial diversity. In agreement, we find a strong correlation with gut community diversity when host bacterial load is adjusted by colony size (Fig. 8, A and B). Linear models suggest that both gut community size (or, collinearly, bee size) and colony size are significant predictors of gut microbiome diversity in the eusocial corbiculates (Fig. 8C and fig. S13).

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