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Rapar Kutch Mla Bibliography

1. Kutch district – Kutch district is a district of Gujarat state in western India. Covering an area of 45,674 km², it is the largest district of India, the population of Kutch is 2,092,371. It has 10 Talukas,939 villages and 6 Municipalities, the same word is also used in Sanskrit origin for a tortoise. The Rann is famous for its salt flats which become snow white after the shallow water dries up each season before the monsoon rains. The district is famous for ecologically important Banni grasslands with their seasonal marshy wetlands which form the outer belt of the Rann of Kutch. Kutch District is surrounded by the Gulf of Kutch and the Arabian Sea in south and west, while northern and eastern parts are surrounded by the Great and Little Rann of Kutch. When there were not many dams built on its rivers, the Rann of Kutch remained wetlands for a part of the year. Even today, the region remains wet for a significant part of year, the district had a population of 2,092,371 as of 2011 census, of which 30% were urban. Motor vehicles registered in Kutch district have their registration Number starting with GJ-12, the district is well connected by road, rail and air. There are four airports in the district, Naliya, Kandla, Mundra, Bhuj is well connected with Mumbai airport. Being a border district, Kutch has both an army and an airforce base, the history of Kutch can be traced back to prehistorical times. There are several related to Indus valley civilization in region and is mentioned in Hindu mythology. In historical times, Kutch is mentioned in Greek writings during Alexander, by fifth century, Maitraka of Valabhi took over from which its close association with ruling clans of Gujarat started. Chavdas ruled the eastern and central parts by seventh century but were came under Chaulukyas by tenth century, after fall of Chaulukya, Vaghelas ruled the state. Following conquest of Sindh by Muslim rulers, Rajput Samma started moving southwards to Kutch, by tenth century, they controlled significant area of Kutch and by thirteenth century they controlled whole of Kutch and adopted a new dynastic identity, Jadeja. For three centuries, Kutch was divided and ruled by three different branches of Jadeja brothers. One of his descendants, Rayadhan II left three sons of two died and third son, Pragmalji I took over the state and founded the current lineage of rulers at the start of the seventeenth century. The decedents of other brothers founded states in Kathiawar, the state accepted suzerainty of British East India Company in 1819 when Kutch was defeated in battle

2. Indian general election, 2014 – The Indian general election of 2014 was held to constitute the 16th Lok Sabha, electing members of parliament for all 543 parliamentary constituencies of India. Running in nine phases from 7 April to 12 May 2014, around 23.1 million or 2. 7% of the total eligible voters were aged 18–19 years. A total of 8,251 candidates contested for the 543 Lok Sabha seats, the average election turnout over all nine phases was around 66. 38%, the highest ever in the history of Indian general elections. The results were declared on 16 May 2014, fifteen days before the 15th Lok Sabha completed its mandate on 31 May 2014. The counting exercise was held at 989 counting centres, the National Democratic Alliance won a sweeping victory, taking 336 seats. The BJP itself won 31. 0% of all votes and 282 of all seats, the United Progressive Alliance, led by the Indian National Congress, won 58 seats,44 of which were won by the Congress, that won 19. 3% of all votes. It was the Congress partys worst defeat in a general election, in order to become the official opposition party in India, a party must gain 10% of the seats in the Lok Sabha, however, the Indian National Congress was unable to attain this number. Due to this fact, India remains without an opposition party. By the requirement, elections to the Lok Sabha must be held at an interval of five years or whenever parliament is dissolved by the president. The previous election, to the 15th Lok Sabha, was conducted in April–May 2009, the election to the 16th Lok Sabha was organised and conducted by the Election Commission of India and was held in multiple phases, to better handle the large electoral base and security concerns. Since the last general election in 2009, the movement by Anna Hazare. Kejriwal went on to form a political party, Aam Aadmi Party. The 2012 presidential election resulted in Pranab Mukherjee of Indian National Congress becoming the president, Andhra politics was further shaken following the death of its chief minister, Y. S. R. Reddy. His son, Y. S. Jaganmohan Reddy, then broke from the INC and founded the YSR Congress Party, the final session of parliament started on 6 February and ended on 21 February. Amongst the agenda in the session was passing the The Lokpal and Lokayuktas Bill,2013 in tackling corruption. This revision of the ceiling on the elections were attributed to the increase in the number of electors, satyendra Singh, a doctor with a disability, showed the lack of preparedness by the Election Commission of India towards electors with disabilities through the Right to Information Act. The Chief Electoral Officer in Delhi, Vijay Dev then started a campaign on providing accessibility for the disabled, Singh conducted sensitisation workshops for election officers and helped in setting up a registration link for voters with disabilities to register to vote and provide their requirements. The Chief Election Commissioner of India, V. S. Sampath, voting was scheduled to be held in nine phases from 7 April to 12 May, and the results of the election were announced on 16 May

3. Indian National Congress – The Indian National Congress is one of two major political parties in India, the other being the Bharatiya Janata Party. Congress was founded in 1885 during the British Raj, its founders include Allan Octavian Hume, Dadabhai Naoroji, there have been seven Congress Prime Ministers, the first being Jawaharlal Nehru, and the most recent Manmohan Singh. The partys social liberal platform is considered to be on the centre-left of Indian politics. From 2004 to 2014, the Congress-led United Progressive Alliance, a coalition of regional parties. As of March 2017, the party is in power in five states, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Meghalaya, in Bihar, it is a part of the ruling coalition. The Congress has previously directly ruled Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, in the 2014 general election, the Congress had its poorest post-independence general election performance, winning only 44 seats of the 543-member house. The party primarily endorses social liberalism—seeking to balance individual liberty and social justice, the Congress was founded in 1885 by Indian and British members of the Theosophical Society movement, including Scotsman Allan Octavian Hume. It has been suggested that the idea was conceived in a meeting of 17 men after a Theosophical Convention held in Madras in December 1884. Hume took the initiative, and in March 1885 the first notice convening the first Indian National Union to meet in Poona the following December was issued. Its objective was to obtain a share in government for educated Indians and to create a platform for civic. The first meeting was scheduled to be held in Poona, Hume organised the first meeting in Bombay with the approval of the Viceroy Lord Dufferin. Womesh Chandra Bonnerjee was the first president of the Congress, the first session was held from 28–31 December 1885, representing each province of India, the Partys delegates comprised 54 Hindus and 2 Muslims, the rest were of Parsi and Jain backgrounds. It also included Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Bipin Chandra Pal, Lala Lajpat Rai, Gopal Krishna Gokhale and Mohammed Ali Jinnah—later leader of the Muslim League and instrumental in the creation of Pakistan. The Congress was transformed into a movement by Surendranath Banerjea and Sir Henry Cotton during the partition of Bengal in 1905. Mahatma Gandhi returned from South Africa in 1915, in 1923 following the deaths of policemen at Chauri Chaura, Gandhi suspended the agitation. In protest, a number of leaders, Chittaranjan Das, Annie Besant, the Khilafat movement collapsed and the Congress was split. Although its members were predominantly Hindu, it had members from other religions, economic classes, at the Congress 1929 Lahore session under the presidency of Jawaharlal Nehru, Purna Swaraj was declared as the partys goal, declaring 26 January 1930 as Purna Swaraj Diwas, Independence Day. The same year, Srinivas Iyenger was expelled from the party for demanding full independence, the British government allowed provincial elections in India in the winter of 1936–37 under the Government of India Act 1935

4. Bharatiya Janata Party – The Bharatiya Janata Party is one of the two major political parties in India, along with the Indian National Congress. As of 2016, it is the countrys largest political party in terms of representation in the parliament and state assemblies. The BJP is a party, with close ideological and organisational links to the Hindu nationalist Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh. The BJPs origins lie in the Bharatiya Jana Sangh, formed in 1951 by Syama Prasad Mookerjee, after the State of Emergency in 1977, the Jana Sangh merged with several other parties to form the Janata Party, it defeated the incumbent Congress party in the 1977 general election. After three years in power, the Janata party dissolved in 1980 with the members of the erstwhile Jana Sangh reconvening to form the BJP. Although initially unsuccessful, winning two seats in the 1984 general election, it grew in strength on the back of the Ram Janmabhoomi movement. After the 1998 general election, the BJP-led coalition known as the National Democratic Alliance formed a government under Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee for a year. Following fresh elections, the NDA government, again headed by Vajpayee, lasted for a term in office. In the 2004 general election, the NDA suffered an unexpected defeat, long time Gujarat Chief Minister Narendra Modi led it to a landslide victory in the 2014 general election. Since that election, Modi leads the NDA government as Prime Minister and as of March 2017, the official ideology of the BJP is integral humanism, first formulated by Deendayal Upadhyaya in 1965. The party expresses a commitment to Hindutva, and its policy has historically reflected Hindu nationalist positions, the BJP advocates social conservatism and a foreign policy centred on nationalist principles. Its key issues have included the abrogation of the status to Jammu and Kashmir, the building of a Ram temple in Ayodhya. However, the 1998–2004 NDA government did not pursue any of these controversial issues and it instead focused on a largely neoliberal economic policy prioritising globalisation and economic growth over social welfare. The BJPs origins lie in the Bharatiya Jana Sangh, popularly known as the Jana Sangh and it was founded in collaboration with the Hindu nationalist volunteer organisation, the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh, and was widely regarded as the political arm of the RSS. The RSS loaned several of its leading pracharaks, or full-time workers, prominent among these was Deendayal Upadhyaya, who was appointed General Secretary. The Jana Sangh won only three Lok Sabha seats in the first general elections in 1952 and it maintained a minor presence in parliament until 1967. The Jana Sanghs first major campaign, begun in early 1953, centred on a demand for the integration of Jammu. Mookerjee was arrested in May 1953 for violating orders from the state government restraining him from entering Kashmir and he died of a heart attack the following month, while still in jail

5. Voter turnout – Voter turnout is the percentage of eligible voters who cast a ballot in an election. Eligibility varies by country, and the population should not be confused with the total adult population. Age and citizenship status are often among the criteria used to determine eligibility, after increasing for many decades, there has been a trend of decreasing voter turnout in most established democracies since the 1980s. In general, low turnout is attributed to disillusionment, indifference, low turnout is usually considered to be undesirable. As a result, there have been efforts to increase voter turnout. In spite of significant study into the issue, scholars are divided on the reasons for the decline and its cause has been attributed to a wide array of economic, demographic, cultural, technological, and institutional factors. Different countries have very different voter turnout rates, for example, turnout in the United States 2012 presidential election was about 55%. In both Belgium, which has compulsory voting, and Malta, which not, participation reaches about 95%. The chance of any one vote determining the outcome is low, some studies show that a single vote in a voting scheme such as the Electoral College in the United States has an even lower chance of determining the outcome. Other studies claim that the Electoral College actually increases voting power, Studies using game theory, which takes into account the ability of voters to interact, have also found that the expected turnout for any large election should be zero. Since P is virtually zero in most elections, PB is also near zero, for a person to vote, these factors must outweigh C. Experimental political science has found that even when P is likely greater than zero, enos and Fowler conducted a field experiment that exploits the rare opportunity of a tied election for major political office. Informing citizens that the election to break the tie will be close has little mobilizing effect on voter turnout. Riker and Ordeshook developed the understanding of D. Other political scientists have since added other motivators and questioned some of Riker, all of these concepts are inherently imprecise, making it difficult to discover exactly why people choose to vote. Recently, several scholars have considered the possibility that B includes not only a personal interest in the outcome, note that this motivation is distinct from D, because voters must think others benefit from the outcome of the election, not their act of voting in and of itself. There are philosophical, moral, and practical reasons that people cite for not voting in electoral politics. High voter turnout is often considered to be desirable, though among scientists and economists specializing in public choice

6. Swing (politics) – An electoral swing analysis shows the extent of change in voter support, typically from one election to another, expressed as a positive or negative percentage. A multi-party swing is an indicator of a change in the preference between candidates or parties. A swing can be calculated for the electorate as a whole, a swing is particularly useful for analysing change in voter support over time, or as a tool for predicting the outcome of elections in constituency-based systems. A swing is calculated by comparing the percentage of the vote in an election to the percentage of the vote belonging to the same party or candidate at the previous election. One-party swing = Percentage of vote − percentage of vote, examples include the comparison between the 2006 and 2007 Ukrainian Parliamentary elections and the win of AAP in the 2015 Delhi elections. The above charts show the change in support for each of the six major political parties by electoral district. In many nation states media, including in Australia and the United Kingdom, an assumption underlies extrapolated national calculations, that all districts will experience the same swing as shown in a poll or in a places results. The term swing makes reference in Australia, to wit in the voting system. The UK uses the two-party swing, adding one partys increase in share of the vote to the percentage-point fall of another party, so if Party Ones vote rises by 4 points and Party Twos vote falls 5 points, the swing is 4.5 points. For disambiguation suffixes such as, must be added where three parties stand, otherwise a problem when deciding which swing is meant and which swing is best to publish arises where a lower party takes first or second, or where a party loses one of the top two places. By contrast, a state is the direct equivalent of a safe seat. The extent of change in outcome is heavily influenced by the voting system in use. Some websites provide a pie chart based or column-based multi party swingometer where ± x%, ± x%, ± x% and this tool or illustration provides likely outcomes wherever more than two political parties have a significant influence on which politicians are elected

7. Gujarat Legislative Assembly election, 2012 – The 2012 Gujarat legislative assembly elections were held in the Indian state of Gujarat in December 2012 for all 182 members of the Gujarat Legislative Assembly. Incumbent Chief Minister Narendra Modi of Bharatiya Janta Party, in power since 2002, was running for his fourth term, the leader of the opposition was Shaktisinh Gohil of the Indian National Congress. Elections were held in two phases, the first on 13 December and second on 17 December 2012, total voting turnout of both phases was 71. 32%, highest since 1980. Results were declared on 20 December 2012, the BJP, led by Narendra Modi, won 116 seats out of total 182 seats and formed the government while INC won 60 seats. BJP has been in power in Gujarat since 1995, Elections were held in two phases, the first on 13 December and second on 17 December 2012. First phase of polling was held on 13 December 2012 witnessed 70. 75% of record breaking voting, within three hours, the voter turnout was 18 per cent and by 1 pm it was 38 per cent. The figure went up to 53 per cent by 3 pm, Phase-II of polling was held on 17 December 2012 witnessed voting turnout of 71. 85%. With 71. 85% of Phase-II voting turnout following the Phase-I turnout of 70. 75%, the average turnout percentage in Gujarat had decreased from 64. 39% in 1995 to 59. 77% during the last four state elections as per the Election Commission of India statistics. Gujarat Assembly Elections -2012 shows a significant change with the turnout reaching 71. 32% comparing to the statistics of past six assembly elections since year 1980. Overall, the Gujarat Assembly Elections -2012 remains a well executed task by the Election Commission, responsible government agencies, all machinery, counting of votes was held on 20 December 2012. Total Seats,182 Results declared,182 BJP lost in 16 seats by the margin of less than 2%, the Congress won 46% seats with a margin of less than 5%. Following candidates won election from their seats, Keys, BJP INC GPP NCP JD Independent * = Barad died on 25 January 2016. Four seats became vacant in 2012-13, bypolls for them was held by Election Commission in June 2013. All four seats were held by Indian National Congress members, morva Hadaf MLA Savitaben Khant died in December 2012 while Limbdi MLA Soma Ganda resigned later as he chose continue as a Member of Parliament. Jayesh Radadiya and Vitthal Radadiya resigned as they left Indian National Congress, in bypolls, INC lost all four seats and BJP won all of them. The bypoll to Surat West was held on December 4,2013 due to death of sitting BJP MLA Kishore Wankawala, BJP candidate Purnesh Modi won against INC candidate D I Patel in result declared on December 8,2013. It was the first time NOTA button introduced in election in Gujarat and it was used by 2307 voters. Rapar BJP MLA Vaghjibhai Patel died on January 30,2014 following heart attack, lathi MLA Bavku Undhad resigned as he quit INC and joined BJP in January

8. Gujarat Legislative Assembly election, 2002 – Modi resigned due to widespread allegations that he had taken insufficient action to prevent the riots that took place a few months earlier. The ruling Bharatiya Janata Party was led by Modi, with the Indian National Congress being the chief opposition, the legislative assembly of Gujarat is elected from 182 constituencies, which were contested by a total of 21 parties and several hundred independent candidates. The Bharatiya Janata Party won a 127 seats, thus achieving a majority in the assembly. Modi was sworn in for a term as chief minister. Following candidates won election from their seats, Keys, BJP INC JD Independent

9. Swatantra Party – The Swatantra Party was an Indian conservative political party that existed from 1959 to 1974. Rajagopalachari in reaction to what he felt was the Jawaharlal Nehru-dominated Indian National Congresss increasingly socialist and statist outlook, Swatantra stood for a market-based economy with the Licence Raj dismantled, although it opposed laissez faire policies. The party was thus favoured by some traders and industrialists, but at the state-level its leadership was dominated by the privileged classes such as zamindars. The Prime Minister was highly critical of Swatantra, dubbing the party as belonging to the ages of lords, castles. In the 1962 general election, the first after its formation, Swatantra received 6.8 percent of the total votes and it emerged as the main opposition to the dominant Congress in four states—Bihar, Rajasthan, Gujarat and Orissa. In 1971, Swatantra joined a Grand Alliance of parties from across the spectrum who aimed to defeat Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. The party secured eight seats, winning only 3% of the votes, the next year, in 1972, its founder Rajagopalachari died, and Swatantra declined rapidly. By 1974, it merged into the Charan Singh-led Bharatiya Kranti Dal, when Jayaprakash Narayan was asked in 2014 whether he saw his Loksatta Party as a modern-day re-embodiment of the Swatantra Party, he replied in a large measure, yes. The founders of Swatantra Party were visionaries and had India followed their leadership, we could have been where China is today, economically. Gayatri Devi K. M. Munshi Mariadas Ruthnaswamy Minoo Masani N. G. Ranga Piloo Mody S. V. Raju V. P. Menon Indian National Congress breakaway parties Bipan Chandra et al, the Swatantra Party and Indian Conservatism. Digitized by the Internet Archive in 2013, India After Gandhi, The History of the Worlds Largest Democracy. Role of Swantantra Party as an Opposition Party, why Swatantra,1960 Minoo Masani, To provide A Democratic Alternative. Why Swatantra,1960 K. M. Munshi, To Restore Fundamental Rights, why Swatantra,1960 N. G. Ranga, To Preserve Family Economy



Winner and Runnerup Candidate in Rapar assembly constituency


The table below shows the Winner and Runnerup candidate form the Rapar Assembly Constituency. The party symbol is also shown along.

Winner Candidate -

Aarethiya Santokben Bhachubhai (won by: 15209)

Rapar Election Results 2017

Table showing the winning and the runner-up Candidate of the 2017 Vidhan Sabha Election in Rapar Assembly

YearPartySymbolstatusCandidate Namevotes
2017BJP RunnerUpPankajbhai Anopchand Maheta 48605
2017INC WinnerAarethiya Santokben Bhachubhai 63814

List of candidates for Rapar Constituency 2017

The table below shows who are the contesting BJP, Congress, independent etc. candidates from the Rapar Assembly Constituency in the Gujarat Assembly (Vidhan Sabha) Elections 2017.


Sitting and previous MLAs from Rapar Assembly Constituency

Below is the list of winners and runners-up in the Rapar assembly elections conducted so far.

YearA C No.Constituency NameCategoryWinnerGenderPartyVotesRunner UpGenderPartyVotes
20176RaparGENAarethiya Santokben BhachubhaiMINC63814Pankajbhai Anopchand MahetaMBJP48605
20126RaparGENVaghajibhai Dharamshibhai PatelMBJP55280Gada Babulal MeghajiMINC46064
20076RaparGENGada (Shah) Babubhai Meghji MINC42934Jadeja Virendrasinh BahadursinhMBJP37295
20026RaparGENBabubhai Meghji Shah MINC40939Dhirubhai ShahMBJP36652
19986RaparGENDhirubhai Swarupchand Shah MBJP29860Gada Babulal Meghaji ShahMAIRJP22046
19956RaparGENGada Babubhai Meghji Shah MBJP37826Savla Ratanshi BhimsiMINC35229
19906RaparGENHarilal Nanji PatelMINC33984Jadeja Murubha RamubhaMBJP25731
19856RaparGENHarilal Nanji PatelMINC35048Shah Bahubhai MeghjiMBJP26324
19806RaparGENShah Babubhai MeghjiMBJP30619Harilal Nanji PatelMINC(I)21951
19756RaparGENHarilal Nanji PatelMINC24751Gada Babulal MeghjiMIND24368
19726RaparGENPremchand OtamchandMINC13704Babulal Meghji GadaMIND12151
19676RaparGENB. GajsinhjiMSWA15060H. N. PatelMINC13205
19625RaparGENJadavji Raghavji MorabiaMSWA26113Harilal Nanji PatelMINC13418

Also check the list of current Gujarat MLAs from other constituencies...

Last Updated on November 30, 2017



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