Writers have just taken the reader through a organized and convincing essay. Now readers seek satisfaction by reading a conclusion statement that wraps up all the main points nicely. Frequently, the ideas in the body of an essay lead to some significant conclusion that can be stated and explained in this final paragraph.
Writers should also provide the reader with a fresh new outlook on the subject, leaving them thinking about the issue. In other words, the conclusion can go beyond the requirements of the assignment as it allows writers to consider broader issues, make fresh connections, and elaborate on the significance of the findings.
Good conclusions can even have a striking ending. It should evoke supportive emotions in the reader, reflecting the same emotions the reader felt throughout the essay. Nothing is more disappointing to a reader than reaching a flat and boring ending. Concluding statements which refer back to the introductory paragraph (i.e. the attention-getter) are appropriate here; it offers a nice stylistic touch which brings the essay full circle.
The conclusion paragraphs typically:
Revisits the Value of the Essay
Restates the Thesis
Considers unexplored areas
Leaves the reader thinking
long-term (e.g., trends and projections) data, this approach would provide an engineering-specific complement to the excellent Science Indicators report prepared biennially by the National Science Board. In addition, methods should be explored for increasing the responsiveness of the system at such time as should be required. One approach would be to regularly construct scenarios of events and responses, based on historical case studies and engineering manpower models, in order to test the effectiveness of potential interventions.
The system has been able to respond adequately to changing demand largely because: (1) the engineering educational system is diversified and flexible enough to adapt institutionally and pedagogically to new requirements, and (2) students react quickly to economic signals in opting for or against an engineering career and in choosing specific fields of engineering study.
In order to retain the responsiveness of engineers and of the overall system, engineering schools should not introduce greater specialization into their curricula. Instead, they should continue to emphasize basic skills and interdisciplinary study.
The current shortage of faculty makes it difficult for engineering schools to offer a high degree of specialized training while still offering the broad, balanced education necessary for maintaining adaptability in the engineering system.
Alternate sources of faculty, such as practicing engineers ''on loan" from industry, should be developed (although it must be recognized that there are serious disincentives for practicing engineers to participate; nor do all competent engineers make competent teachers). Increased use of teaching assistants and non-Ph.D. faculty would also expand a school's teaching capacity. Perhaps the most exciting potential, however, lies in new ways of teaching. The engineering educational system should utilize educational technology to the fullest in developing alternate methods of instruction. Computer-aided instruction, computer simulations, and the creative use of satellite technology for voice-video-data communications are among the most promising opportunities.
Social values and attitudes play an increasingly important role in establishing and altering patterns of demand for engineering-related products.
Engineering education should be structured to instill in the student the knowledge that engineering is a social enter-